Hi everyone, welcome to our patriotic series. In this series I am sharing biographies of great freedom fighters. Today I am going to talk about our father of the nation, who is none other than Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
We popularly know him as Bapuji or Mahatma Gandhi. So, I am writing a biography of Mahatma Gandhiji based on important events of his life.
Brief Information of Mahatma Gandhi
|Identity||In the Indian freedom struggle, he fought for peace and Satyagraha. The Indians recognized him as the “Father of the Nation” of India. Besides, he was also an eminent politician, lawyer, Social Worker and writer|
|Birthdate||October 2, 1869|
|Birthplace||Porbandar, Porbandar district|
|Parents||Mother: Putlibai Karamchand Gandhi, Father: Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi|
|Wife||Kasturba Mohandas Gandhi|
|Education||L. L. B. from University College London College|
|Children||Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas, Devdas|
|Participated movements||Indian Independence Movement|
|His Books||The Story of My Experiments with Truth|
|Date of death||January 30, 1948|
|Age during Death||78|
|Death place||New Delhi|
|Cause of death||Nathuram Godse had shot him dead|
|Monuments of Mahatma Gandhi||Rajghat, Gandhi Smriti, etc.|
As British colonialists ruled many nations in the world. But, when the freedom struggle of each of those nations is mentioned, the name of one person comes to mind in the context of each country.
Like for Africa, we know Nelson Mandela as their main leader. So, it is no wonder when you mention the Indian freedom struggle, the name of Mahatma Gandhi comes to mind.
The reason is also so obvious because Mahatma Gandhiji was one of the great freedom fighters and a member of the National Congress Party (NCP).
That time was believed that,
“We cannot achieve rights through peace, it has to be achieved through struggle.”– Belief of HSRA
But, such an armed movement incites violence. Therefore, Gandhiji taught us to struggle with the non-violent way of Satyagraha. Not only that, with the support of Indian citizens, he also succeeded in the freedom struggle.
Gandhiji encouraged many freedom fighters to participate in independence struggle. Prominent youth revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru, Ashfaqulla Khan, Chandrashekhar Azad are also inspired by Gandhiji.
Mahatma Gandhi Family
Parents of Mahatma Gandhi
Grandfather of Mohandas Gandhi, Uttamchand was the Diwan of Porbandar. He was succeeded by Karamchand Gandhi as Diwan. Like his father Uttamchand Gandhi, Karamchand was a great philosopher.
Mother of Mohandas was Putlibai and she was very religious. She used to perform Hindu religious rituals and fasting according to the rules.
So naturally, in the development of Mohandas Gandhi, Putlibai sowed the seeds of character, while Karamchand Gandhi made him conscientious.
After ten years of schooling, he enrolled in a school near his home. There he attended regular school, and was an ordinary student in school. He was a humble, fickle but very shy person.
Religious family background
As the mother was religious, Tulsi Ramayana was recited regularly in the house of Gandhi. As a child, he was afraid of ghosts, so he learned to chant the name of Lord Rama. We also see the influence of Ramayana on his life.
Raghupati Raghav Rajaram| Patit Pawan Sitaram ||– Laxmanacharya
Vaishnava Lord Rama devotee Laxmanacharya compiled 108 names of Shri Rama from the cantos of Sanskrit Ramayana of Adikavi Valmiki. The above hymns written by him but Mahatma Gandhi made them famous in India.
When Mohandas was seven years old, his father Karamchand Gandhi quit his job. Karamchand Gandhi then migrated to Rajkot with Mohandas and his entire family.
He was also appointed there as Diwan of Rajkot. Mohandas and his brother Karsandas entered primary school.
Few events in the life of Mahatma Gandhi
One day, near the house of Mohandas a man came with colorful pictures. Among the many paintings in his hand, Mohandas noticed Shravan Bal taking his blind parents on a pilgrimage in yoke. Extraordinary love of Shravan Bala for his parents had a profound effect on Mohandas.
In the same way, one day Mohandas saw the play of Satyavadi Raja Harishchandra. In the play he saw how Harishchandra is following the truth even in a very difficult situation. Watching the play he realised that truth is difficult to follow. But at the end, only those who follow the truth would win in the long run.
This may have inspired Gandhiji to follow the path of truth in the face of adversity.
Marriage of Mohandas Gandhi
That time, Child marriage was a tradition in Indian society. Therefore, marriage of boys and girls was arranged at a very young age. So how will Mahatma Gandhi get rid of this tradition?
At the age of thirteen, Mahatma Gandhi married his mate, Kasturibai. In 1887, Mohandas Gandhi passed matriculation from the Ahmedabad center.
Quotes of Mahatma Gandhi
A Man is nothing but a Product of His Thoughts. What He Thinks He becomes.
I will not let anyone Walk Through My Mind with their Dirty Feet.
Nobody can Hurt Me without My Permission.
Happiness is When What You Think, What You Say, and What You Do are in Harmony.
The Weak can Never Forgive. Forgiveness is an Attribute of the Strong.
An Ounce of Practice is Worth a Thousand Words.
A Coward is Incapable of Exhibiting Love; it is the Prerogative of the Brave.
Live as if you were to Die Tomorrow. Learn as if you were to Live Forever.
Freedom is not Worth Having if it does not include the Freedom to make Mistakes.
Service which is Rendered Without Joy Helps neither the Servant nor the Served.
The Best Way to find Yourself is to Lose Yourself in the Service of Others.
In a Gentle Way, you can Shake the World.
Hate the Sin, Love the Sinner.
The Future Depends on What you do Today.
You Don’t Know who is Important to You until You actually Lose Them.– Mahatma Gandhi
Education of Mahatma Gandhi
For the graduation purpose, he entered Shyamaldas College in Bhavnagar. However, he left the college in the first semester to study law abroad. To study abroad Laxmidas arranged money who was the elder brother of Mohandas.
Putlibai Initially disagreed with the idea of sending him abroad for education. But on the promise of not having close contact with women, not eating meat, and staying away from addiction, Putlibai allowed them to go abroad.
Mahatma Gandhi’s vows to his mother-in-law enabled him to stay away from many of the lures abroad.
Despite opposition from traditional peoples, he left for the United Kingdom on September 4, 1888. He spent almost 21 years abroad. During this time, he also faced many new problems.
Mohandas took admission to the Inner Temple on November 6, 1888 to study law. Mohandas became a member of the London Vegetarian Board in England. While in this circle, he wrote many articles on Hindu customs and diet.
Many scholars in that circle experimented with diet. Gandhiji regard alcohol and drugs as a disgrace to human civilization and the greatest enemy of mankind.
Mohandas Gandhi read his English translation of Edwin Arnold at the end of 1889. In the second chapter of the Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna describes renunciation as the best form of religion.
This chapter had a profound effect on him. You may have heard that the Bhagavad Gita, the holy scripture of Hinduism, has had a positive effect on many people in the world. The Bhagavad Gita also seems to have had a profound effect on the life of Mahatma Gandhi.
Mahatma Gandhi also studied the venerable Bible in Christianity. Finally, on June 10, 1891, Mahatma Gandhi graduated from the Inner Temple as a barrister.
Death of Putalabai
During the three-year career of Mahatma Gandhi, career in London is considered significant. When he reached home on July 8, 1891, after the graduation ceremony of college, a mountain of sorrow fell on him. Because his mother Putalabai would have died.
Activities of Mahatma Gandhi in London
London Vegetarian Board
Mohandas entered the Inner Temple on November 6, 1888 to study law. Mohandas became a member of the London Vegetarian Board in England. While in this circle, he wrote many articles on Hindu customs and diet.
Many scholars in that circle also experimented with diet. He considered alcohol and drugs a stigma on human civilization and the greatest enemy of mankind.
Profound Effect of Bhagavat Gita
Mohandas Gandhi read his English translation of Ramayana by Edwin Arnold at the end of 1889. In the second chapter of the Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna describes renunciation as the best form of Dharma. This chapter had a profound effect on them.
You may have already heard that the holy scripture of Hinduism, the Bhagavad Gita, has impacted positively on many people in the world. The Bhagavad Gita seems to have had a great impact on the life of Mahatma Gandhi as well.
Study of Christian religious Holy Bible
Mahatma Gandhi studied the Holy Bible in Christianity. Finally, on June 10, 1891, Mahatma Gandhi graduated as a barrister from the Inner Temple.
Three-year period of Mahatma Gandhi in London is considered significant. He arrived home on July 8, 1891, after the college graduation ceremony. Then, a mountain of sorrow falls on them. Because, his mother Putlibai would have died.
After that, Mohandas entered the Mumbai court to practice and study Indian law and to get familiar with Indian court.
Meanwhile, he went to South Africa under an agreement with Porbandar traders. After a month of voyage, he reached Durban, South Africa.
Gandhiji lost consciousness after seeing extreme racism in Africa. He felt sorry for the victims of apartheid.
Insult of Mahatma Gandhi in Africa
Insult during a Train Journey in Africa
Gandhiji was travelling in first class coaches to go to the court of Durban. At that time, despite showing him the ticket, TC forced him to go to third class. Gandhi opposed this injustice being done to him. At that point, he pushed out of the train with the luggage.
Contempt of Mahatma Gandhi in the Court in Durban
After he entered the court, the court ordered him to remove the turban. At that time, Gandhiji could not bear this insult, and he left the court in the middle.
A year later, a law was passed in South Africa to abolish the suffrage of Hindi people. At that time, Gandhiji started an anti-apartheid movement in Africa to get the rights of the Hindi people.
Natal Indian Congress
Mohandas founded the “Natal Indian Congress” with the help of African colleagues. He founded this party to solve the problems of the Hindi people in Africa and to improve relations with the white people.
While managing the organization for many years, he presented the problems of Hindi people to the leaders.
Return of Mahatma Gandhi to Homeland
When Mahatma Gandhi was 26 years old, on June 5, 1896, Gandhiji returned to his homeland after inculcating Satyagraha among the freedom fighters of Africa.
Among his great contemporaries after his arrival in India at that time were Nyayamurti Ranade, Surfroz Shah Mehta, Lokmanya Tilak, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and others.
After receiving an important message from Natal in November 1896, Gandhiji had to leave India for Africa with Kasturibai. Therefore, their stay in India was short-lived.
Movement against Hindi people in Africa
The white people had started a movement to expel the Hindi people from Africa. So he had to stay a long way from the port of Durban.
As he disembarked from the ship, Gandhiji was beaten with batons and stones. He even insulted them by blowing up their turbans.
But Gandhiji continued to endure it without any resistance. Even then, he did not take any legal action against him.
Self-Reliant, Simple Living & High thinking
Shortly after this, the hatred of white Europeans towards Hindi people reached Shige. At the same time, Gandhiji got into the habit of self-reliance and simple living. He started working in a hospital with a sense of service.
War between Dutch Colonies & British in 1899
Gandhiji helped the British by showing sincerity to the British Empire. To treat wounded soldiers, he went to the battlefield and treated wounded soldiers. For this, he also formed a group of Hindi people.
After spending about six years in Africa, Gandhi prepared to return to India. On his return to India, his colleagues from Africa made many valuable gifts, including honors.
Short-term departure to India
Participation in Congress session
After returning to India in 1901, Gandhi attended the Congress convention for the first time.
Visit of Mahatma Gandhi to India
When Mahatma Gandhi returned to India, he met many freedom fighters. He traveled all over India to know the current situation of the Indian people. He traveled in third class to learn about the problems that passengers face.
Once Again Departure of Gandhi for Africa
After that, Mahatma Gandhi started his own business again. But, once again, he got telegrams from his colleagues in Africa. So he had to go back to Africa.
Once back in Africa, Gandhiji realized that their next fight would be to stay in Africa. So Gandhi started his career as a lawyer in Johannesburg.
He started his own weekly Indian Opinion to understand the problems of the people of India and solve them.
In 1903, Mahatma Gandhi started this weekly in four languages. After assessing people from all walks of life, Gandhiji found the life of a worker meaningful. So he bought a garden in Phoenix.
Here he established settlements and established the importance of labor, which made the settlements self-sufficient.
As Mahatma Gandhi gave priority to simple living, the people of the settlement also practiced his conduct. So the needs are reduced.
The Zulu Rebellion of 1906
Mahatma Gandhi was appointed Sergeant Major in the Hindi contingent. At the risk of his life, Gandhiji crossed a few miles of hills and took the injured Zulus to his service. Gandhiji’s mind got peace due to his attitude of service.
Gandhiji’s Pledge of Celibacy
Sadhana of body and soul cannot be done at the same time. Mahatma Gandhi believed that, along with poverty, as a public servant, observance of celibacy was important. So he vowed to observe celibacy for the rest of his life.
After returning from this battle, they received some shocking news. This is because a government order was issued forcing Asians to obtain a license. Gandhiji called this law a black law against humanity.
The law caused dissatisfaction among the Indian people. On September 11, 1906, Gandhi vowed, “I may die, but I will not abide by this anti-Asian law at all.”
Gandhiji resorted to the weapon of civil disobedience to continue the moral struggle. Mahatma Gandhi was a minister and lawyer of the British Indian Association in Africa. But instead of being a lawyer, he felt compelled to stand in the cage of criminals as a prisoner of politics.
Imprisonment of Mahatma Gandhi
Gandhiji was imprisoned for the first time on January 10, 1918, for violating civil law. After reading the book Satyavir Socrates, Gandhiji felt that all Hindustanis should follow Socrates’ example.
Gandhi Smath Agreement
Fifteen days later, the government released the Satyagrahis from prison on the condition that the black law be repealed, and all Hindi people be given licenses of their own accord. According to the agreement, Gandhiji also gave his fingerprints to get the license.
But the government refused to repeal the black law, threatening the Hindi people by going against the terms of the agreement. So the Holi anti-black law movement started once again, with all the licensing documents being holi.
All the protesters were ready to go to jail at the same time. So controlling them was a big challenge for the government. Due to Mahatma Gandhi, the objectives of his movement were clear to the Hindi people.
Due to this agitation, Gandhiji was again imprisoned for two months. All the freedom fighters showed unprecedented courage. Gandhiji was again imprisoned on January 25, 1990.
Mahatma Gandhi’s Influence on Maharshi Tolstoy
Among those who showed interest in India was the famous writer Maharshi Tolstoy. Gandhiji introduced him to this Satyagraha. He expressed sympathy with the movement and hoped that it would be a success and set an inspiring example for millions of Dalits around the world.
Maharshi Tolstoy also read his biography to get to know Mahatma Gandhi and his struggles. Gandhiji’s dream of establishing a village of Satyagrahis living a simple life in Africa came true in Johannesburg. Mahatma Gandhi named this settlement “Tolstoy Farm”.
In October 1913, people gathered in the city of Newcastle in Transpal to raise their voices against the 3 pound tax imposed on the Hindi people. The people of Africa had great faith in Mahatma Gandhi.
Mahatma Gandhi was imprisoned three times in four days during the agitation from Newcastle. Facing many obstacles, the Hindi people continued this morcha. The British African government charged Gandhi with four counts and sentenced him to one year in prison.
Gandhiji’s faith in Satyagraha and his efforts made him successful. After his success in Africa, Gandhiji felt that his duty in Africa was now fulfilled.
Read how Gandhiji learned nonvoilence in Africa?
Return of Gandhiji to India
Therefore, on July 18, 1914, Gandhiji left Africa. Traveling by sea, Gandhi landed at the port of Mumbai on January 9, 1915. At that time, he was warmly welcomed by the then Indian leaders and people.
Mahatma Gandhi had spent most of his life abroad. So the political climate and problems in India were new to him. Therefore, Gandhiji immediately refused to give his opinion to Gopal Krishna Gokhale on public questions.
Wherever Gandhiji went to meet his relatives and friends, he was warmly welcomed. Gandhiji hoped that India would establish friendly relations with the West through this ancient culture.
Meanwhile, Gandhiji was saddened to learn of Gokhale’s death on February 19, 1915. In praise of Gokhale, Gandhiji said, “After traveling all over India, he saw an adventurous soul like Gokhale.”
Establishment of Satyagraha Ashram
He set up a Satyagraha Ashram at Kocharab in Ahmedabad to bridge the gap between sacrifice and service. About twenty-five of his followers pledged truth, non-violence, indigenous khadi, celibacy, abstinence, and the abolition of untouchability.
Freedom from the Blue Curse in Champaran by Gandhiji
In 1917, Gandhiji went to Bihar. Where he had the opportunity to serve the farmers who were devastated by the blue farming in Champaran.
When Gandhiji took notice of the people’s complaint, a new wave of hope spread among all the farmers. After the farmers expressed their grievances, Gandhiji asked the farmers to stop indigo farming.
The hundred-year-old indigo cultivation in Champaran has come to an end. The glory of Satyagraha was first realized by the people by closing down this farm.
Migration of Satyagraha Ashram
In 1917, an epidemic hit India. When the epidemic started in Kocharab village too, Gandhiji shifted the ashram near Sabarmati river. Due to which this ashram is known as “Sabarmati Ashram” by all Indians.
There is a temple of worship in this ashram. In this temple every evening people of all religions would come together and pray in harmony. Work at Sabarmati Ashram was devotional. The rules of the ashram reflect Gandhiji’s personality.
Gandhiji’s health deteriorated due to poor diet and overwork, so he came to Mumbai for treatment.
Due to Mahatma Gandhi’s vows not to take medicine or milk, his condition did not improve quickly. At the request of his wife Kasturba, he started drinking goat’s milk.
Even while ill, he learned to spin. This spinning wheel became a symbol of peace.
Roulette Act of 1919
In February 1919, the Rowlatt Act, which suppressed national movements, was enacted. Gandhiji started a civil disobedience movement against this law which was strangling the rights of the citizens.
Despite the opposition of Hindustani members in the Legislative Assembly, the government passed this black law on March 18, 1919.
As per the call made by Mahatma Gandhi to the countrymen, April 6, 1919 was celebrated all over the country as “Satyagraha Day”. The imprisonment of all the protesters led to a reduction in imprisonment across the country.
Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Gandhiji’s challenge started the civil disobedience movement all over the country. According to Gandhiji, all the people of the country responded spontaneously to the agitation.
In such a revolutionary environment, the Sikh brothers also came together to support the movement.
The Sikh community started the Satyagraha movement in a non-violent and peaceful way at Jallianwala Bagh in the heart of the city of Amritsar.
At that time, a detachment of Brigadier General Dyer was passing through the city of Amritsar. He entered the Jallianwala Bagh area through a small window.
General Dyer ordered the firing on thousands of protesters without warning. The firing continued until they ran out of ammunition.
Thousands of helpless men, women and children were also brutally murdered in the village. Thousands were injured and 375 were killed.
Punishment of Law Breakers
During the lawlessness movement, the British government punished people by crawling on the ground and beating innocent people. Gandhiji was offended by this punishment.
The frightened masses slowly began to take violent action. Gandhiji felt that he did not want to start a law-breaking movement before the whole country knew the meaning of Satyagraha. Therefore, on 18th April 1919, the Satyagraha movement was suspended.
The Amritsar Congress in December 1919, in the court of Motilal Nehru, approved Gandhiji’s mantra of Swarajya through indigenous income and a proposal to revive the ancient handicrafts.
Because India was a thriving agro-industrial country, India’s progress depended on plows and spinning wheels. Gradually, Mahatma Gandhi’s chanting started all over India.
Mahatma Gandhi believed that India’s moral and economic renewal could only be achieved through the revival of the Charkha, not by the sound of weapons.
Participation of Gandhiji in Khilapat Movement
Gandhiji also joined the Khilafat movement against the unjust conditions imposed by Britain on Turkey. Even in this movement, Gandhiji’s non-violent non-cooperation was effectively implemented.
Death of Lokmanya Tilak
Gandhiji chose an August day to start this non-cooperation movement. Lokmanya Tilak died on the night of August 1.
Expressing grief over his death, Gandhiji said, “We have lost the male saffron of India forever. Future generations of India will remember him as the creator of modern India.
Probably no other leader in India has done as much for the cause of Swarajya as Tilak did. Due to Tilak, the feeling of Swarajya had spread all over India at that time ”.
Congress Convention at Nagpur
At the Congress convention in Nagpur in December 1920, Gandhiji’s proposal for a just and peaceful way of self-government in just one year was accepted by a majority. Therefore, his idea was also recognized in the constitution to allow the Congress to control the power of the common people.
Beginning of the Gandhian Era
Thus the Gandhi era began with the recognition of Mahatma Gandhi’s ideas in India. While touring India, Gandhiji considered many questions. Among them poverty was a big problem in front of them.
Flag of Swarajya
Respecting the wishes of Mahatma Gandhi, Charkha got a place in the flag of Swarajya. It was the flag of Swarajya, the holiness of all religions and unity. The flag has three colors, the first is white, the second is green and the third is red.
Born in 1921, the national flag was a symbol of non-violent revolution and ideal life. Gandhiji protested against the boycott of foreign clothes in Mumbai on 31st July 1921 by holding a Holi of foreign clothes. The protest was supported all over the country.
The Renunciation of Clothes by Mahatma Gandhi
When he came to Mumbai while touring the country, he realized that millions of poor people across the country could not buy new indigenous clothes immediately after Holi.
So Gandhiji himself promised to give up his hat, turban and kurta. For this, he shaved his head on the morning of September 21 and promised to spend the rest of his life in one robe.
The atmosphere of revolution reached its peak during the Congress session in Ahmedabad. All the leaders in the Congress preferred the non-violent non-cooperation movement to the armed movement. The Congress party also gave all the privileges to Gandhiji.
Gandhiji’s Suspension of Civil Disobedience Movement
In a letter to the Viceroy, Gandhiji said that Bardoli taluka in Gujarat would be the first front of non-violent people’s revolution.
However, due to the violence against the British police in a village called Chaurachauri in Gorakhpur district on 5th February 1922, the civil disobedience movement in Bardoli was suspended.
Mahatma Gandhi Arrested for Writing Anti-State Articles
Gandhi was arrested on March 10, 1922, on charges of writing a sedition article in Young Indian. The trial began on March 18 at the Circuit House in Ahmedabad. At the time, he was accused of writing three sedition articles.
In the first two articles, he challenged the British government to be dishonest, while in the third article, he challenged the authorities who were exploiting the Dalits.
In the third article, he said, “As long as the British government’s hunting paw is on our chest, how can there be a deal.”
Gandhiji confessed himself as a farmer, a worker. In his defense, he said, “The British government has enslaved India. I consider it my religion to be dishonest against such a government. For this I have been given no severe punishment.
The case was decided and Gandhiji was sentenced to six years in prison. They did not see humanity anywhere in the prison. Gandhiji was kept in seclusion away from other prisoners.
Every prison rule was imposed on them. He was released from prison and returned to prison after a thorough investigation. After the first twenty-two months, Gandhiji’s health was greatly affected.
Meanwhile, on the night of January 12, 1924, he was undergoing surgery at Sassoon Hospital in Pune.
Sudden power outage results in all lights are turned off during surgery. At that time, doctors perform Gandhiji’s surgery only in the light of a lantern.
Government pardons Gandhiji’s sentence
On February 4, 1924, the British government revoked Gandhiji’s sentence and released him. The 39th Congress session was held on December 26, 1924 in Belgaum. Addressing the Congress party at the convention, he said,
Meaning of Satyagraha
In this convention, Gandhiji explained the meaning of Satyagraha to the people. Gandhiji called the search for truth Satyagraha. Swarajya is our birthright, and Satyagraha is our birthright.
Gandhiji, who considers untouchability a great insult, says, “Untouchable is one who is against the national interest. Man is not untouchable.”
After the convention, Gandhiji’s presidency of the Congress was completed. After that, Gandhiji kept his silence in the political arena and vowed to retire. According to Mahatma Gandhi, silence is a form of worship.
As a result, Gandhiji got physical relief and his condition improved. Inspired by Gandhiji’s ideas, the farmers of Bardoli staged an agitation against the tax hike under the leadership of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
Movement Against the Simon Commission
Inspired by the spirit of nationalism, citizens from different parts of the country raised their voices against the Simon Commission.
Meanwhile, Lala Lajpat Rai, a leader of a non-violent anti-Simon front in Punjab, was severely injured when he was ordered to be lathicharged. He died a few days later during treatment.
Paying homage to him, Gandhiji said, “Leaders like Lalaji will remain immortal as long as the sun and moon shine.”
Calcutta Congress Session
In December 1924, the Congress convention in Calcutta was held under the chairmanship of Motilal Nehru.
Prominent youth leaders, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose, opposed all-party reports in favor of Sansthan Swarajya.
Gandhi declared the treaty and gave the British government one year to grant colonial independence. At the same time, Gandhi warned the British government that “all demands must be met by December 31, otherwise the goal of complete self-government will stand in front of the Congress.”
After that, the political atmosphere became unstable. At the same time, Bhagat Singh Batukeshwar Dutt bombed the assembly. The purpose of the attack was to awaken the British government and convey the voice of the oppressed masses to them.
The one-year term of Gandhiji before the British government came to an end. Jawaharlal also expressed his interest in socialism and democracy.
Gandhiji’s efforts finally paid off, and at midnight on 31 December, the British government approved a proposal for full self-government as soon as the new year began. The flag of the front was hoisted announcing the victory of India and Inquilab Zindabad.
Preparations for the agitation started on 26th January 1930 by celebrating Independence Day all over the country. Seeing the spirit and enthusiasm of nationalism among the people, the confidence required to resume Gandhiji’s movement increased.
Gandhiji made a manifesto of eleven points which included important issues like reduction of alcohol, land revenue, expenditure of soldiers and abolition of salt tax.
He wrote that water, air, food and salt are the most essential things for human health. “If the letter I have written has no effect on your mind, then on the eleventh of this month I will respect the government’s salt law,” he wrote.
After receiving a negative reply from the Viceroy, Gandhiji just happened.
“This is probably my last speech on the shores of Sabarmati. In this peaceful and non-violent struggle, we are all determined to use every means at our disposal,” he said. Gandhiji also encouraged women to join the movement.
Gandhiji said that the agitation should continue even after this violation of law with the strength of Satyagraha.
On the dawn of March 12, 1930, thousands of people gathered near the ashram at the instigation of Gandhiji. Gandhiji left the Sabarmati Ashram and set out for the coastal village of Dandi.
Hundreds of men and women accompanied him. Dandi is a village located at a distance of 241 km.
With Mahatma Gandhi, all the pilgrims will cover a distance of about ten miles daily. They will be welcomed in every village on the road.
Gandhiji also preached on the issues of abstinence from alcohol, child marriage and other bad practices in those villages. He also used to inspire people to take advantage of salt as soon as they get a warning.
As Gandhiji’s Dandi Yatra was moving towards the beach, the enthusiasm of the people of the country was increasing. It took Gandhiji twenty-four days to complete the long journey from Sabarmati to Dandi.
After entering the village, Gandhiji called a meeting to prepare all the Satyagrahi. At the meeting, Gandhiji clarified everything, saying, “Those who are afraid of the British government should leave, and those who are ready to be shot in the chest or go to jail, should come with me tomorrow morning.”
After bathing in the sea in the morning, Gandhiji broke the black law by taking a handful of salt in his hand. As soon as the warning of violation of law was received, agitation started in many places across the country.
As a result, many Satyagrahis had to face these and atrocities. Nevertheless, all the Satyagrahis remained calm and endured everything.
Warning to the Viceroy
Gandhi lived for some time in a mango orchard in Karadi village near Dandi. In the meantime, he warned the viceroy in a letter to break the law non-violently over a salt disease.
In this letter, Gandhiji says, “If I do not allow the British government to make full use of our sharp Punjab and allow the Satyagrahis to face the maximum crisis, it will be my cowardice.”
Gandhiji Arrested again by British Government
On the night of May 4, 1930, a detachment of armed British troops entered Gandhiji’s hut. However, under Article 25 of 1827, Mahatma Gandhi was arrested by the British government.
Before going to jail, Gandhiji raised the self-esteem of Satyagrahis all over the country and said, “Hindustan’s self-esteem is in the salt in the hands of Satyagrahis. Therefore, even if the fist is crushed, do not voluntarily hand over the salt to the government.
Mahatma Gandhi further said that people want all people to learn to live life by sacrificing their lives.
This was the situation of Hindustan during the dictatorial British rule. The British government was trying to become more unjust and ruthless in order to crush Gandhiji’s movement.
Boycotts on Foreign Clothing and Alcohol
According to Gandhiji, all the Satyagrahis were on guard at liquor dens across the country. As a result, the rate of addiction among the youth of the country has come down.
Apart from using foreign clothes, many Hindustanis accepted Swadeshi. The decision of the farmers not to be ashamed also started showing good results at the national level.
Because such an event increased people’s faith in the strength of the nation. The people of the country were now eager to revolt. Many members of the Legislative Assembly also resigned. The British government declared several congressional committees illegal. The mass arrests led to a reduction in prison.
A Congress leader was imprisoned. But the movement did not stop because other leaders led the movement. Despite many efforts, the government could not control the situation. They martyred thousands of Hindustanis in this agitation. This agitation lasted for a few months.
Finally, with the permission of the Viceroy, Tej Bahadur Saparu and Mukundrao Jayakar went to Yerwada Jail to meet Gandhiji for an opportunity.
After they released unconditionally Gandhiji on January 26, 1931, he had to move to Ahmedabad as he wanted to do Karad because Motilal Nehru’s health suddenly deteriorated and he died on February 6, 1931.
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