Chandrashekhar Azad is known as one of the violent revolutionaries of the Indian independence war. He was the chief commander of the “Hindustan Socialist Republic Association.” Above all, Persons in Association were working against oppressive British rule. He didn’t tolerate the injustice done by Britishers on Indian people. Most importantly, Chandrashekhar was a contemporary of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Sukhdev. He always was proud of his accomplishments. Chandrashekhar Azad has thought that to wake up the British Government, we must have to create challenging problems. Therefore, he created so many crises and issues for the British Government.
Birth of Chandrasekhar Azad:
Firstly, Chandrashekhar Azad was born on July 23, 1906, to the families of Sita Ram Tiwari and Jagrani Devi. In addition, he was born in the village of Bhavara (Bhabhara) in the Jhabua district (in present-day Alirajpur district). Moreover, Chandrasekhar Azad was born into a Pandit family. Therefore, his mother wanted his son to become proficient in Sanskrit.
Childhood of Chandrasekhar Azad:
Chandrasekhar Azad grew up with a community of Bhil people in his village. Therefore, he learned the art of Bhil Society. He became an expert in swimming with wrestling, archery, spear throwing, shooting. Moreover, He was a devotee of Lord Hanuman since childhood. Naturally, he developed an excellent physique that would suit to devotees of Lord Hanuman. On the other hand, his primary education done at Bhabhara.
Education of Chandrasekhar Azad:
As a student, he was average in the academic field. However, he decided to pursue further education in Sanskrit to fulfill his mother’s wishes. Therefore, he came to Varanasi for higher education in Sanskrit. Subsequently, he came in contact with many nationalist and revolutionaries.
In addition, Chandrashekhar was known as “Azad” meaning “The Free Man.” Secondly, he was a brave hero from his early childhood age. He did not like living and sitting at home. So, he preferred to wander and stay outdoor. The thought of doing something for the country has reflected in his thinking. In addition he being expert in disguise. Therefore, for British Government had to capture him was like climbing Mount Everest. His one of famous slogan is
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Jallianwala Bagh massacre:
Thousands of innocent people have killed in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919. In other words, The British regime has witnessed brutal violence by tearing down fundamental human rights in the Constitution. Most importantly, English officer Stock has ordered the firing on a peaceful and unarmed mob. Despite this inhumane action, the British Government ignored the incident. The British Government did not take any action against the concerned English officer. In short, remained silent for this incident. Therefore, the Indians started hating British rule even more.
In conclusion, due to Jallianwala Bagh massacre whole India engulfed by the nationalist movement. “To free our beloved motherland from the enslavement of the Britishers.” All the revolutionaries had dedicated their lives to this one goal. They prepared to sacrifice their life in this Yajna of Self-government. Chandrasekhar Azad was also working with a group of such revolutionaries.
This journey from Chandrashekar Tiwari to Chandrashekhar Azad:
This journey was just the beginning of Chandrasekhar Tiwari’s revolutionary work. Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement inspired the spirit of nationalism in the year 1920-21. In protest of the one campaign, a young man was arrested. British officials asked him his name, father’s name, and place of residence. The young man replied, name “Azad,” father’s name “freedom,” and residence “custody.” This 16-year-old man was “Chandrasekhar Tiwari.” English authorities have punished him to 15 times beat up with whip. Later, this young man was came known as Chandrasekhar Azad.
Hindustan Republican Association:
On February 5, 1912, Gandhi suspended the Non-cooperation Movement. The decision shocked young revolutionary organizations. Azad suffered from anxiety as to how to fight further. Chandrashekhar Azad always felt that an aggressive approach for freedom of motherland was appropriate.
Ram Prasad Bismil was the president of the Hindustan Social Republican Association. Azad met Ram Prasad Bismil through Pranavesh Chatterjee.
He began his work with the admission to the HRA. He focused his entire focus on raising funds for the HRA organization.
For this, he made the bold decision to raise funds by looting the Government tresury. This plan was executed and revolutionaries robbed the vault according to their plan.
Location of Kakori:
The HRA organization needed funding to carry out various revolutionary tasks. For this, Ram Prasad Bismil gave the idea of robbing a railway carrying government treasury.
Chandrasekhar Azad devised a plan for this idea. Selected revolutionaries targeted train No. 8 that was going from Shahjahanpur to Lucknow. Some of the revolutionaries entered the train carrying money to the government treasury. The revolutionaries pulled a chain, and the train stopped at Kakori. Eight thousand Indian rupees looted from the guard cabin of the train. But unfortunately, one passenger was killed in a skirmish between armed guards and revolutionaries. The British Government declared this as homicide and launched a campaign to capture all the revolutionaries.
Chandrashekhar Azad then launched his next expedition from Jhansi without coming to the notice of the British.
Chandrasekhar Azad then traveled to Kanpur. At that time, Kanpur was headquarters of the HRA. In Kanpur, he met influential young men like Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru. They became a good friend of Chandrasekhar Azad. It gave them a new zeal. With all of them, he restored the Hindustan Republican Association. Azad called the organization as the “Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.”
Death of Lala Lajpat Rai:
On October 30, 1928, Lala Lajpat Rai protested peacefully. Still, police officer James Stock ordered to beat with the cane. Lalaji was seriously injured in this unjust act. Finally, on November 19, 1928, Lalaji died tragically.
Killing of John P. Sanders:
Chandrashekhar Azad, along with his accomplices, decided to seek revenge from the police officers James stock responsible for Lalaji’s death. For this, they plotted the planned conspiracy against the James Stock.
On December 17, 1928, the revolutionaries implemented as per their plan. But because of the lack of proper identification, they targeted the wrong person. That’s why Assistant Superintendent of Police John P. Sanders gets killed.
Acknowledgment of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association:
On the next day, the HSRA accepted responsibility for the incident. They arranged posters throughout the Lohore city for acknowledgment. This event included all individuals at the top of the British Most Wanted list.
Arrest to Bhagat Sigh, Sukhadev, Rajguru and 21 members of HSRA:
Bhagat Singh protested in the Delhi assembly. As a result, he arrested on April 8, 1929. After the bankruptcy of the HSRA bomb factory in Lahore and Saharanpur, a selected number of members got approval for the state. After that, Rajguru and Sukhdev arrested along with 21 others. The Lahore conspiracy involved 28 revolutionaries, including Chandrashekhar Azad.
Capture of Chandrashekhar Azad:
The police squad was ready and working hard to apprehend Chandrashekhar Azad and his accomplices. However, the English police often failed to catch them. So, to capture Chandrashekhar Azad, the British Government has finally announced a reward of Rs. 30,000. Someone with the desire for money tells the Azad’s location to the British police team. So, the police squad finally found out about Chandrashekhar Azad’s whereabouts.
Chandrashekhar Azad visited Alfred Park to meet his friends in Allahabad on February 27, 1931. This news reported to the British police. Therefore, the police surrounded the park and asked Azad to surrender.
Death of Chandrashekhar Azad:
He bravely fought with the British police to get their friends out. His shooting was exact, so he killed three police officers in the firing. But, he was seriously injured when he left the park. In this long run skirmish, the limited ammunition of Chandrashekhar Azad had ended. Besides, there was no other way to escape out. Since the situation was ultimately the opposite, he decided to finish himself with the last bullet. He finally shotted himself on his head. Thus, Chandrashekhar Azad died bravely.
Love of Chandrashekhar Azad for Motherland:
Chandrashekhar Azad had promised not to surrender to British Police until the last breath. Until the end, his will to liberate the motherland has destroyed the foundation of the British monarchy. Azad devoted his whole life to the freedom of motherland. His work was undoubtedly inspirational to his contemporaries and the coming generations.
He had become a significant problem for the Britishers. He desired to break the repression of British imperialism. Chandrashekhar Azad created this ambition in the hearts of every countryman.
Two way fight to oppressive British Rule:
The non-violent way of Mahatma Gandhi and the revolutionary idea of Chandrashekhar Azad, both paths fueled patriotism among the hearts of compatriots. Azad is remembered today as one of the brave and unique revolutionaries among the Indian revolutionaries.
Dream of Chandrashekhar Azad:
He dreamed of an independent India based on socialist ideals. He had committed himself to make that dream come true. Azad understood the true meaning of Shiv Chhatrapati’s Swarajya. His invaluable contribution did not lead to immediate independence. However, by his sacrifice, the Indian revolutionaries were on fire to resist the British.
Azad Still Alive in Every Indian citizen:
After the independence of India, Alfred Park was renamed as “Chandrashekhar Azad Park” as a salute to Azad’s incredible courage and sacrifice.
Indian Patriotic Films on Chandrashekhar Azad:
In Indian patriotic films, Chandrashekhar Azad has portrayed by various actors.
In the year 2002, film “The Legend of Bhagat Singh”, Akhilendra Mishra played the role of Chandrashekhar Azad.
Also, in the year 2006, in the Superhit film, “Rang De Basanti” was starring characters of Chandrashekhar Azad, Pandit Ramprasad Bismil, and Ashfaq Ullah. In this film, Chandrashekhar Azad’s role played by the famous Bollywood actor Amir Khan.
Featured Image Credits: Wikimedia