Indian Freedom Fighters – Ancient to Modern Period

by Sep 1, 2023


It is always fascinating to learn about the freedom fighters of a historically rich country like India. This article lists freedom fighters from ancient to modern times of history. These great souls fought to free the country from foreign oppressive rule. Their aim was the same, that the upcoming generations should be able to breathe in an independent India.

Indian freedom fighters, revolutionaries, activists and leaders fought for common dream of freedom. They left their lasting legacy here in India. This blog contains list of honorable freedom fighters of India. They fought valiantly to liberate their motherland.

Both mutineers Jahal and peaceful Maval; groups took part in this anti-British struggle. From Satyagraha movement of Mahatma Gandhi to revolutionary activities of Bhagat Singh, patriots helped in the freedom struggle in various ways.

The freedom fighters of the Jahal group are called mutineers, revolutionary or revolutionary freedom fighters. Whereas the freedom fighters of the Maval group are called non-violent freedom fighters.

Revolutionary freedom fighters fight for freedom through way of violence against the ruling government. Their violent activities may include murder, bomb attacks, etc.

On the other hand, some non-violent freedom fighters protest non-violently against the unjust government but their activities do not involve violence.

We call every person as a freedom fighter who contributes to the freedom struggle in some way or the other. Whether he belongs to the peaceful or violent group does not diminish their value.

So in this article I am going to briefly tell you about the contribution of more than hundred freedom fighters and their struggle in life.

India has been invaded by many foreigners since ancient times. Of these, the Emperor Sikander or Alexander of the ancient Greek Macedonian Empire invaded in 327 BC. This attack is considered to be the first known attack on India in history.

At that time people also referred to India as Bharat Varsha or  Jambudvipa. India was likened to a golden bird in ancient times. The reason was the same, India had abundance of fertile land, reservoirs, forest resources, mineral resources which are the basic factors for human development. So people were financially prosperous.

Which led to the overall development of the country, in which powerful empires like Magadha, Maurya, Gupta came into existence. Similarly, educational universities like Taxila, Nalanda, Vikramshila, Pushpagiri, Vallabhi were established for the development of education sector.

A favorable environment for such holistic development attracted foreign invaders.

Invaders like Muhammad of Ghazni invaded India for the sole purpose of looting the riches of India. Some historical books mention his seventeen looting raids and attacks.

Indian freedom fighters successfully fought many invasions from Alexander to the British invasion. But many people had to sacrifice their lives in this sacrifice of freedom.

Most people think of patriots in modern history as freedom fighters. Hence mostly the list of patriots includes only those patriots who participated in the Indian freedom movement.

Although India gained independence after the return of the British invaders, Britain was not the only country among the foreign invaders. Therefore, I feel that the inclusion of patriots of ancient and medieval times is necessary in this list. Because, they also fought for the nation with equal vigor.

Similarly, most of the articles on the internet have very little mention of women freedom fighters. So I will keep an eye that they also get due justice in this list.

So let’s go through the list of Indian freedom fighters from ancient times in chronological detail.

Ancient Indian Freedom Fighters

Emperor Puru or Emperor Porus

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Notable Work

4th Cent. BCE.

3rd Cent. BCE.

He showed unparalleled prowess in the battle of Jhelum.

Army of Porus inflicted heavy losses on Alexander’s army.

Due to losses in the Battle of Jhelum fought by Porus, the Greek army suffered consequences.

At the insistence of the Greek army, Alexander canceled his further campaign in India and retreated back to motherland.

Detailed Information

King Porus showed unparalleled prowess in the battle of Jhelum against Alexander.

Even in the battle of Jhelum, Alexander is considered victorious. However, it is certain that the army of Alexander suffered heavy losses in this battle. Because, after this war, at that time it was not easy to fight the Nanda Empire in India.

Also army of Alexander was exhausted from constant fighting. The battle losses at the entrance to India had already caused panic among the Greek soldiers. In that the army of the Nanda Empire in India was almost fifteen times larger than the Greek army. So the army requested Alexander to retreat back to Macedonia. As a result, Alexander finally retreated in 325 B.C.

History of King Porus is mentioned in the many Greek sources. Those source includes work of historians as Plutarch, Arrian, Diodorus and work of geographer like Ptolemy.

King Puru is mentioned in Hindu scriptures like Bhagavata Purana, Mahabharata, Rigveda. King Puru is mentioned in 9th Skanda of Bhagavata Purana.

But in all these texts, there is a lot of variation in their period, as well as the ruling area. Some things cannot be considered as historical sources as they are not scientifically reliable.

Chandragupta Maurya

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Notable Work

340 BCE approx.

between 297 to 293 B.C.

He founded the mighty Maurya Empire under the guidance of Chanakya.

Greek emperor Alexander was forced to retreat after pushing the Greek invaders out of India.

After Alexander, he established friendly relations with Seleucus Nicator and established peace in India.

The establishment of a united empire in India led to economic, social, educational, literary and artistic progress in the country.

Detailed Information

Chandragupta founded the largest empire in India. Which came to be known as “Mauryan Empire”. He was among those ancient Indian freedom fighters who fought to free India from invaders.

It would not be wrong to call him a freedom fighters of ancient India. He forced Greeks out of India and maintained interests with them.

This boosted the trade in the country and made the country economically prosperous. He founded the mighty Maurya Empire under the guidance of Chanakya.  Due to the establishment of the Mauryan Empire, there was peace in India for almost a century and a half.

Alexander also known as Sikandar. His dream was to conquer India. Acharya Chanakya, who was working as an educator in Taxila, already guessed about this plan of Sikandar.

There is no other option but to create a united India to fight against this experienced army of Alexander. Chanakya was also aware of this. As a result, Chanakya tells his plan to Dhanananda, king of the Nanda Empire. But, Dhanananda was a very cunning, treacherous, and arrogant king, who ignores plan of Chanakya and insults him.

At that time, Chanakya takes a pledge that he will not tie his hair until the Nanda clan is completely destroyed.

Chandragupta killed the greedy and selfish Magadha king Dhanananda. As a result, the Mauryan Empire was established by capturing the throne of Magadha.

Chandragupta succeeded in creating a united India by expanding the empire to the west and north. Thus, Chandragupta Maurya also fulfilled his promise by making Akhand Bharat the dream of Chanakya a reality. During his career he achieved many goals in the interest of India.

Pushyamitra Shunga

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Notable Work

3rd Cent. C.E.

2nd Cent. C.E.

He transformed the disintegrating Maurya Empire into a dominant Shunga dynasty once again.

He settled the Bactrian Greek invaders forever.

He was one of the kings who performed Ashwamedha Yagna in ancient times.

Detailed Information

He played an important role during decline and after end of Mauryan Empire. Pushyamitra established the Shunga dynasty and ruled.

In Indian history, Pushyamitra Shung is not given as much importance as it should be. But he was one of the notable Indian freedom fighters. Because he put an end to the lazy and cowardly Mauryan emperor Brihadratha and once again gave the empire a powerful central rule.

He fought with the Bactrian Greeks and drove them from the borders of India. According to some evidence he was a mighty king who performed Ashwamedha Yagya. He was one of the kings who performed Ashwamedha Yagya in ancient times.

As Pushyamitra Shunga was a Hindu emperor, there are many references against him in Buddhist and Jain scriptures. For example, Pushyamitra attacked Buddhist monasteries and massacred many Buddhist monks.

But as there is no inscription or concrete evidence to be found about it, most of the Buddhist monks must have deliberately mentioned it to discredit him.

Gautamiputra Satakarni

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Notable Work

1st Cent. C.E.

2nd Cent. C.E.

Among Satavahana he was the most famous king of the dynasty.

He gave a bitter reply to the foreign invaders and banished them outside the borders of India.

He is credited with keeping India free from foreign invasion for eight centuries until the invasion of Muhammad Ghazni in the eleventh century.

Maternal naming was the practice of the Satavahana period, so Gautamiputra Satakarni was named after his mother Gautami Balashri.

Detailed Information

During the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, the Satavahana kings ruled the Deccan. Among those Satavahana kings, the reign of Gautamiputra Satakarni in the second century is very famous.

Its reason is the same, he fought to free India from foreign slavery. He drove all foreign invaders out of India with his power.

This brave Indian freedom fighters kept the Indian subcontinent safe from foreign invaders. It was because of him that India remained free from foreign invasions for almost eight centuries.

Prithviraj Chauhan

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Notable Work

1166 C.E.

11th March, 1192 C.E.

He was powerful, courageous and have a unique lover identity.

He faced the foreign invader Muhammad Ghori three times.

Prithviraj Chauhan loved to write poetry, he was a poet himself.

He was the last Hindu king on the throne of Delhi.

Detailed Information

In the eleventh century AD, Mahmud of Ghazni looted huge wealth from India. The motive behind his invasion was to loot Indian wealth. He did not favor imperialism.

Then in the twelfth century AD, Mohammad Ghori invaded India. At first, the object of his invasion was to plunder Indian wealth. But, while looting temples, he thought to rule the Indian subcontinent. He also succeeded to capture Delhi in his third attempt.

Prithviraj Chauhan is regarded as a symbol of bravery and courage in India. He strongly resisted the invasion of Muhammad Ghori.

However, Muhammad Ghori defeated him in the third battle. But, still he fought three wars for the motherland. We cannot forget his contribution and thus he was a true Indian freedom fighter. He became the last Hindu Indian freedom fighter to rule the throne of Delhi.

After the victory of Muhammad Ghori, he made prisoner and taken to Ghazni in Afghanistan. Then, Ghori ordered his soldiers to gouge out his eyes while also physically torturing him.

According to Prithviraj Ravso Granth, Chand Bardai was his court poet. It was because of him that Prithviraj Chauhan was able to take revenge by killing Mohammad Ghori.

Medieval Indian Freedom Fighters

Sher Shah Suri

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

1486 C.E

22nd May, 1545 CE

He overthrew Mughal rule and captured Delhi.

He helped in the transformation of the society during his short term rule of five years.

He introduced the rupee as a silver coin. It is currently the national currency of Indonesia, Maldives, Mauritius, Nepal, Pakistan, Senchelles, Sri Lanka along with India.

He conquered many provinces like Bihar, Bengal, Malwa, and Marwar.

Detailed Information

After a son of Babur, Humayun ascended the throne, Sher Shah Suri of the Suri dynasty overthrew the Mughal rule. He showed the way to Persia to the Mughals. After his exile, he went to Gujarat for some time. He also surrendered for some time in Ranthambore Fort of Rajasthan.

Before Babur captured Delhi, the Sultans who ruled Delhi, though from outside India, they stayed in India for a long time. So they adapted to the culture of India. As a result, over time they considered India as their motherland and thus did not remain foreigners.

The Mughals who came in the 16th century were the new foreign invaders. So over time after some generations of Sultanshahi. Indian people also accepted them; as Indian too. Indians also know them as Pathans. Hence Sher Shah Suri is also known as one of the Indian freedom fighters.

The Mughals who came in the 16th century were the new foreign invaders. On the other hand, there were generations of sultanates in Delhi. So over time, after a few generations, even the native Indians accepted them as Indians. Indians also know them as Pathans. Hence, Sher Shah Suri is also known as Indian freedom fighter.

Sri Krishnadevaraya

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

17th January, 1471 CE

17th October, 1529

Sri Krishnadevaraya was the Chakravarti emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire during medieval times.

He ruled for 20 years from 1509 to 1529.

His period is considered to be the golden age of the Vijayanagar Empire, because along with the expansion of the empire, the state reached a great peak in all fields like literature, art, architecture, etc.

His court cabinet employed the Ashtadiggaj system, the ideal of which was adopted by great kings like Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and used in his administrative system of Ashtapradhan Mandal.

Detailed Information

Harihara I and Bukka Rai I founded the kingdom of Vijayanagara in South India. Sri Krishnadevaraya ruled this famous empire for 20 years from 1509 to 1529.

During his career, Vijayanagar reached the pinnacle in various fields of literature, art, architectural design etc. in the state.

At that time, Vijayanagara was one of the rich historical cities of India. Also, Vijayanagara was famous for its exquisite architecture of temples.

Being a powerful state in South India, Vijayanagar remained free from foreign invaders for almost three centuries (from 1336 to 1646 AD).

Sri Krishnadevaraya was the most powerful emperor of Vijayanagara. During his time he not only maintained the existence of Vijayanagar but also expanded the empire. So that foreign invaders or neighboring states never cast a crooked eye on their state. So he was a great king as well as a great Indian freedom fighter.

Maharana Pratap

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

9th May, 1540 CE

19th January 1597 CE

He was the Maharana of the Mewar province of Rajasthan who fought against the Mughal forces of Emperor Akbar and preserved the independence of Mewar.

He ruled the throne of Mewar from 28th February, 1572 till January 19, 1597.

In spite of very adverse conditions, he did not give up and fought against the Mughal rule and maintained the existence of Mewar.

Despite several attempts, Akbar, who had troops, ammunition, and abundant other resources, could not completely conquer Mewar.

He fought the famous Battle of Haldighati, in which even after failure, he continued to fight using the guerilla warfare tactics.

Detailed Information

Maharana Pratap was the king of the province of Mewar in current Rajasthan. He fought against powerful and ambitious emperors Mughal Emperor Akbar.

Akbar tried with all his might to annex Mewar to his Mughal empire. But Maharana Pratap loved freedom so much that he kept his kingdom of Mewar despite sacrificing everything.

On the one hand was the lust for imperial expansion for selfish purposes, on the other was the selfless devotion to save own motherland.

So in the end, Akbar was never able to capture the entire kingdom of Mewar. Even after their reign, the struggle started by the Mughal rulers and the Rajput kings was finally continued by the Maratha Empire of the Deccan.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

19th February, 1630 CE

3rd April, 1680 CE

He established Swarajya and laid the foundation of the Maratha Empire.

In India he is known as the founder of Swarajya.

He fought against powerful powers like Mughals, Adilshahs, Nizamshahs, Siddhis of Janjira, Portuguese, British.

Detailed Information

He not only established Swarajya, but also expanded the Maratha kingdom to the south in a hostile situation where the enemy was encircled on all sides of the kingdom.

Shivraya recognized the importance of the forts and taking control of them made it convenient for him to rule the surrounding region. He was known for his unique administration, guerilla warfare and foresight.

He first introduced the concept of Swarajya in India and established Swarajya. Therefore, it would not be wrong to call him the ideal ruler of medieval times and the mighty freedom fighter of India.

Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

14th May, 1657 CE

11th March, 1689 CE

He is known as the second great and mighty king of Maratha kingdom.

He fought against all the enemies like Mughals, Siddhis, British, Portuguese.

He fought many wars in his short reign of 9 years.

Till his last breath he refused to renounce Hinduism and convert, so Indian Hindus knew him as “Dharmaveer”.

Detailed Information

After the untimely death of Shivraya, Sambhaji Maharaj took charge of Swarajya.

Mainly, he fought against all foreign invaders like Aurangzeb, Portuguese, Siddhis, British and settled them. After that, southern campaign of Sambhaji Maharaj was very successful.

But unfortunately, a secret meeting at Sangameshwar came to the knowledge of the Mughals and he was captured by the Mughals.

But once Mughals got news of his secret meeting at Sangameshwar. So, Mughal encircled all knights along with Chhatrapati.

As Sambhaji Raje already sent his army to Raigad keeping only few of his trusted mens. So there were no way but to fought. After the last battle, Chhatrapati Sambhaji got captured by the Mughals.

On Aurangzeb’s order, he was brutally tortured and murdered. Although his career was short, his work was extraordinary.

One of conditions of Aurangzeb before killing him was that the Chhatrapati Sambhaji should convert to Islam.

Hence, he is known not only as an Indian freedom fighter, but also as a protector of Hinduism. Hence he is also known as Dharmaveer Sambhaji Maharaj.

Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

18th May, 1682 CE

15th December, 1749 CE

After his release from Mughal detention, he fought against the queen Tararani and captured the throne of Satara.

During his reign, the Maratha kingdom became two authorized states. The first was the kingdom of Satara which was ruled by Shahu Maharaj, while the second was the kingdom of Kolhapur which was ruled by Shivaji II, the son of Tararani.

People know Shahu Maharaj of Satara for his political skills, sound judgment, and administrative efficiency.

Detailed Information

Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj was the son of Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj. During his reign, he transformed his kingdom into an empire. During the reign of Sambhaji Maharaj, Peshwai system was well established in administrative affairs. Therefore, the general was called Peshwa in the Maratha administration.

Peshwai started during the period of Shahu Raje. Before that, during the reign of Shivray and Sambhaji Maharaj, the army was under the control of generals.

Although the kings themselves rarely took part in the battles, still till period of Sambhaji Raje, Chhatrapati himself was often present to strategize and plan.

Shahu Maharaj spent his childhood and youth in the Mughal camp. Hence, he came directly into contact with the living conditions of North Indians and Mughals. Which also brought some luxury in their lifestyle and reduced the habit of hard work.

He was released after the death of Aurangzeb. After that, he fought to regain his right to Satara throne which he succeeded in.

Therefore, during the reign of Shahu Maharaj, he entrusted all the war related planning to the Peshwas. He made Balaji Vishwanath as Peshwa, the person who had helped him to get the throne of Satara.

The sudden death of Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath raised the question of choosing a competent general. Which naturally led Shahu Maharaj to appoint another capable Peshwa, whose name was Peshwa Bajirao.

After the appointment of Peshwa Bajirao I as the Maratha Peshwa, Maratha kingdom began to expand. Due to his brilliant military leadership, ambitious mindset and quick decision-making, he conquered more than half of India within ten years.

Modern Indian Freedom Fighters

This list of freedom fighters includes those who fought against British rule in India. Gettig the independence of India is possible due to the sacrifices of countless Indians. In the anti-British agitation, Indians were beaten with sticks, some were subsequently imprisoned, sentenced to black water, and some were sentenced to death.

Every such Indian is a freedom fighter in my eyes. But this list includes such modern freedom fighters, who inspired thousands and millions of Indians to join the freedom struggle.

Tatya Tope

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

16 February, 1814 CE

18 April, 1859 CE

During the War of Independence in 1857 CE, he held the charge of Commander-in-Chief.

He was a close friend and associate of Nanasaheb II and Rani Lakshmibai.

He himself trained the army and launched an anti-British revolt.

Detailed information

The contribution of Tatya Tope to the Indian War of Independence was unparalleled. He led the Indian Army as Commander-in-Chief in the 1857 Uprising.

Impressive leadership skills of Tatya Tope forced British General Windham to retreat in the battle. He also helped Rani Lakshmi Bai to save Jhansi from the British, but his efforts failed.

After the capture of Jhansi by the British, Tatya Tope helped Lakshmibai to capture the fort of Gwalior. He led thousands of Indian freedom fighters in the first war of independence.

Even though his efforts did not make India independent immediately, still it was first important war of independence. After this war, many Indians took inspiration from the sacrifices of all participants in battle of 1857. It motivates them to continued their efforts without giving up.

Nana Saheb II

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

19th May, 1824 CE

24th September, 1859 CE

He led 20,000 soldiers in the agitation in Kanpur which was also successful.

Nana Saheb II fought till the end to fight against the tyrannical rule of the British.

Detailed information

Nana Saheb II was the adopted son of the last Peshwa, Bajirao II, and the British Government rejected him as Peshwa. As a result, his pension was stopped by the British government. Due to which Nana Saheb II falls into the freedom struggle.

He led the struggle in Kanpur in which the defeat of the British forces gave the revolutionaries a new hope for independence.

He led nearly 20,000 soldiers in this uprising in Kanpur. Therefore, he was an important Indian leader in the freedom struggle of 1857.

Rajarshi Shahu Maharaj

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

26th June, 1874 CE

6th May, 1922 CE

He was a king of Kolhapur province. But rather he was a great social reformer who sincerely tried to alleviate the sufferings of the masses.

Shahuji Maharaj did many works like construction of dams, development of industrial sector, development in arts and sports sector.

He made primary education compulsory to increase the literacy rate. At the same time, he gave reservation to Dalits.

Shahu Raje helped many social reformers, freedom fighters. He also helped and sheltered many legends in the field of arts and sports.

Detailed information

People used to know Shahu Maharaj as the king of Kolhapur province in Maharashtra. India was ruled by the British during his reign.

He built the Radhanagari dam for proper water supply in agriculture. Shahuji Maharaj also developed the industrial sector as well as the arts and sports sector.

He was a great social activist and Chhatrapati during the foreign British rule in India. He helped many social reformers like Babasaheb Ambedkar, Mahatma Phule, Karmaveer Bhaurao Patil. He introduced many social reforms while having limited administrative powers under adverse conditions.

He was the first to issue charters to give reservation to Dalits. He also made primary education compulsory for children, which increased the literacy rate. Although the work done by him is not directly related to the freedom struggle, but reforming the society under adverse conditions is no less than a freedom struggle. His work helped improve the lives of countless Indians.

Kunwar Singh

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

13th November, 1777 CE

26th April, 1858 CE

Regardless of his age, he participated in the freedom struggle and led the army when he was about 80 years old.

He forced the retreat of the army of Captain Le Grand through guerrilla tactics.

Detailed Information

He led the the divison of Indian Army. He was one of the oldest Indian freedom fighters. Above all, he was skilled in guerrilla warfare.

Most notably, he was about 80 years old, when he led the army in this battle. Kunwar Singh was known for his indomitable courage and bravery.

He fought tirelessly for the freedom of his beloved motherland. Kunwar Singh also defeated British army of Captain George Le Grand Jacob.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

23 July, 1856 CE

August 1, 1920 CE

He was considered a popular leader by Indians which led him to be referred to as “Lokmanya”.

Awakening the thoughts of Shiva Raya, he planted the seed of Swarajya in Indians again.

He started English newspapers Kesari in Marathi and Maratha in English and raised public awareness by criticizing the unjust rule of the British government.

Lal-Bal-Pal were considered as the three pillars of the Indian freedom struggle, among which Bal was Lokmanya Tilak.

Detailed Information

Tilak impressed the people with his ideas of Swarajya and in no time became a beloved leader among the people. Because of which he came to be known as Lokmanya.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak is included in the Mawal group. Because, although he directly criticized the British government through his newspaper, he never took part in violent agitations or activities.

“Swaraj is my birthright and I will get it!” 

He roared like this. He fought alongside many the leaders of INC party. Tilak was one of the Indian freedom fighters.

He was known for his rebellious nature from childhood. He did not tolerate injustice done to anyone. He also did not tolerate the injustice done to the Indians by the British.

Therefore, to raise voice against this unjust government, he started his newspapers. In 1881 CE he the Marathi newspaper named Kesari and in 1889 CE he started an English newspaper called Maratha.

According to him, the British wanted to rule most of the Indians by keeping them uneducated. So he started new schools as part of the uprising. Lal-Bal-Pal were considered as the three pillars of the freedom struggle. Gangadhar Tilak was known as Bal in this column.

Veerpandia Kattboman

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

January, etc. S. 1760

16 October, etc. S. 1799

He was considered a powerful poligar in the anti-British struggle.

He was a poligar of Panchalankuri village.

Ittappan, the King of Pudukottai betrayed them and captured them as British.

The Archaeological Survey of India has taken over the responsibility of maintaining the fort of Panchalankurichi.

Detailed Information

He was a poligar of Panchalankuri village near Ottapeedaram taluka near Thoothukudi district. He was born in this place.

Rajakambalam Nayakkar caste people were shepherds. Kammavars and Reddies were also known as Vadugan community. He was a member of all these three communities.

While engaged in anti-British activities, King Ittappan of Pudukottai threatened and handed him over to the British police. He was then publicly hanged on 16 October 1799 at Kayathru.

Along with him, his associate named Subramanya Pillai was also executed. Saundara Pandian was also brutally murdered by hitting her head against the wall. On the other hand, Omaidurai was imprisoned.

Currently, the Fort of Panchalankuri is being protected by the Archaeological Survey of India. A biographical film based on his life was also released on 16 May, 1959 CE titled “Veerapandiya Kattboman.”

Mangal Pandey

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

July 19, 1827 CE

8 April, 1857 CE

He was an angry anti-British fighter in the freedom struggle of 1857 which led him to take part in anti-government revolutionary activities.

After the incident regarding religious compromise in the British army, he started taking part in anti-British activities.

Inspired by many Indians, he was hanged ten days early to avoid any mishaps by his supporters at the time of his execution.

Detailed Information

Mangal Pandey was one of the early freedom fighters of the freedom struggle. He contributed a lot in the struggle of 1857. He is known as a revolutionary of Jahal group.

In 1850 CE, while on patrol at the Barrackpore outpost, Enfield rifle came in which while loading cartridges it had to bite. Meanwhile rumors spread that the lubricant used for the cartridges was made from cow or pig fat.

Cow meat is forbidden among Hindus and pork among Muslims. This created an illusion among the soldiers that the British deliberately used such substances on the cartridges. Seeing the behavior of the British government against religious beliefs, all the Indian soldiers had differences towards the British rule. Therefore, most of the soldiers left their jobs and started participating in revolutionary activities.

In the incident on the day of 29th March, 1857, he fired at the British officers to incite the Indian soldiers against the British officers and boost their confidence. After this incident, he was tried and executed.

The date of his execution was 18th April, 1857 CE. However, due to public tension and fear of an uprising, he was hanged on 8th April, ten days earlier. The uprising started by him is considered as the beginning of the Indian War of Independence.

Ashfaqullah Khan

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

22nd October, 1900 CE

19th December, 1927 CE

Ashfaqullah was a revolutionary who participated in the revolutionary activities of the Hindustan Republican Association.

He tried to raise funds for this organization named H. R. A. For that he joined the Kakori robbery.

Detailed Information

Ashfaqullah Khan was born into the Khyber Muslim tribe at Shahjahanpur in present-day Uttar Pradesh, India.

In 1924 CE, Hindustan Republican Association was founded by people with revolutionary ideas. According to this organization, armed struggle is necessary if freedom from British rule is to be achieved. Ashfaqullah Khan participated in this anti-British revolutionary organization.

H. R. A. organization needed funds for revolutionary activities as well as arms and ammunition. Therefore, with the consent of the president in this organization, a plan was made to rob the British government treasury from Kakori.

He is considered a loyal revolutionary, who did not fail to sacrifice his life for the motherland.

Bipin Chandra Pal

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

7 November, 1858 CE

20 May, 1932 CE

He was a famous writer, through his writings he tried to organize the people of different thoughts, religion, caste in India.

Bipin Chandra Pal was a member of the INC Party. Also, they are known as Lal-Bal-Pal in three pillars.

He boycotted foreign goods to make people prefer indigenous goods.

Detailed Information

Although the Indian National Congress was initially Mawal minded (peace minded), but till 1919 CE, aggressive thoughts of Tilak had approached towards Jahal or Zhunjar thoughts.

Later, Bipin Chandra Pal formed an alliance with Bengali colleagues of nationalist views. These colleagues, however, expressed displeasure against loyalty to thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi.

In between 1912 CE and 1920 CE, through his writings, he tried to bring an union among various communities in India. But, after 1920 CE he stayed away from politics in India but contributed to Bengali journals through his writings.

Bipin Chandra Pal was one of the three pillars of freedom struggle of India namely Lal-Bal-Pal. Similarly, Pal was also a member of the INC.

In his important works he boycotted foreign goods and preferred indigenous goods. Because of his revolutionary thoughts, he is called the father of revolutionary thoughts.

Chandrasekhar Azad

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

23 July, 1906 CE

27 February, 1931 CE

He was a founding member of the revolutionary organization “Hindustan Socialist Republican Association”.

He started the freedom struggle in his life when he was 15 years old.

He was the inspiration and mentor of many revolutionaries in H. S. R. A. in India.

He was seriously injured in an encounter with the British police in Alfred Park, and killed himself with a final bullet.

Detailed Information

Chandrasekhar Azad along with Bhagat Singh and other like-minded friends re-established the “Hindustan Socialist Republican Association”. Azad was known for his aggressive and daring revolutionary work in the freedom struggle.

When he was just fifteen years old, he was inspired by the thoughts of Gandhiji and participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement. At that time he was jailed, at which time the police asked his name and address. He then told his name as “Azad” and address as “Jail”.

At an early age, the British police angrily punished him by beating him with whip to due to his presence of mind. Chandrasekhar Azad was a close mentor of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Sukhdev, Ashfaq Ullah. Azad was seriously injured in an encounter with the British police at Alfred Park.

During the encounter, he killed some policemen. But, the police were outnumbered and as he ran out of cartridges, so he killed himself with the last bullet. While working in the H. S. R. A. organisation, he had sworn never to fall into the hands of the British police.

He kept his oath till the end. Hence, he is known as a bold and brave Indian revolutionary freedom fighter.

Hakeem Ajmal Khan

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Notable Work

February 11, 1868 CE

20 December, etc. S. 1927

He was also a patriot and a politician along with a famous physician in India.

He was instrumental in preserving the ancient Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine.

He established an institution called Hindustani Dawakhana, a Unani Medical School for women, as well as an Ayurvedic and Unani Tibia College.

He was actively involved in Khilafat movement.

Detailed information

Ajmal Khan 1864 CE is known as a very important figure among Indian scholars and physicians of the Unani system. He was a great literary man, patriot and statesman along with a distinguished physician. He was a humanitarian and always gave priority to democracy in the country.

The British severely affected the ancient Ayurveda and Unani medical systems. At that time, Sharif Khan tried to preserve the existence of Ayurveda and Unani Tibz among the old medical systems in Hindustan. Due to which his family is famous as Sharif Khan family in Delhi.

In 1905 CE, he established the “Hindusthani Dawakhana” institute in Delhi to prepare medicines through Ayurvedic and Unani methods. Then In 1911 CE, Hakim Ajmal Khan founded “Madrasa Tibbia Niswan” (also known as Madrasa Tibbia Niswan wa Kabbalat), which translates as Unani Medical School for Women.

He then established the Ayurvedic and Unani Tibia College in Delhi. The inauguration of this dream college, was done by Mahatma Gandhi on 13th February, 1921.

He worked in the company of eminent national leaders like Ali Brothers, Annie Besant, Lala Lajpat Rai, Swami Sharadanand, Motilal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi. He became a symbol of Hindu-Muslim unity at the national level. He actively participated in the national freedom struggle.

Chittaranjan Das

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Notable Work

5th November, 1870 CE

16th June, 1925 CE

He freed many revolutionary freedom fighters from punishment so he is also called Deshbandhu.

Due to participating in the non-cooperation movement, he was imprisoned for six months in 1921.

In 1922, he was made the President of the INC Party.

Detailed information

He entered the legal profession after attempting the civil services competitive examination for some time. During his tenure he defended many revolutionary freedom fighters.

He had often guided Subhash Chandra Bose. Bose was his close friend. Hence Subhash Chandra Bose and Chittaranjan Das are called Deshbandhu.

Arvind Ghosh needed to be exonerated from the British criminal case against him. Chittaranjan Das is credited with defending Ghosh in this case.

He rejected the economic development based on the western ideas of the British. He felt the living conditions of ancient Indian villages and according to him that period was a golden age for India.

While supporting non-cooperation movement of Gandhiji, in 1921, the British sentenced him to 6 months imprisonment as a political criminal.

After becoming president of the Indian National Congress in 1922, the party abandoned efforts to end colonial-sponsored elections of provincial councils. Instead, all party and non-party people decided to try to get government posts so that they could disrupt internal government affairs.

Sidhu Murmu and Kanhu Murmu

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

1815 CE

30 January, 1856 CE

He led the Santal movement in Jharkhand during the uprising of 1857.

About 10,000 Santals joined this movement.

A reward of Rs 5000 was announced at that time for the capture of Sidhu and Kanhu.

To some extent the Santal movement is considered a success.

Detailed information

In Jharkhand, which was ruled by a regional dynasty, the British army entered and captured Kolhan region in Singhbhum in 1767 CE. Earlier, the Ramgarh state was ruled by Chero dynasty of Palamu, Nag dynasty of Chotanagpur Khas, Manav dynasty of Manbhum, Singh dynasty of Singhbhum, Panchet kingdom.

After occupying this area, the British colonial administration and local landlords were progressively encroaching on the ancestral lands of the Santals. Tribal communities were forced to work as laborers on these lands under harsh and exploitative conditions. Due to which severe resentment and financial difficulties arose from them.

In the revolt happened between 1855-56 CE, the Santal group of Jharkhand played a major role. Sidhu Murmu, Kanhu Murmu and their brothers Chand and Bhairav led around 10,000 Santals in this rebellion against British colonialism. The Santal movement of 1857 uprising is considered a successful movement.

Sidhu and Kanhu were literally blown away the sleep of the British police. Therefore, the British government had announced a reward of around Rs.5,000 to catch them. This shows how dangerous these revolutionaries were for the British.

The revolt took place in Purulia, Birbhum and Bankura in present-day Jharkhand and Bengal in eastern India. These revolutionaries had to sacrifice their lives in an attempt to oust the British government.

Birsa Munda

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Death of Death
Noteable Work

15th November, 1875 CE

9th June, 1900 CE

He recognized that the religious beliefs of Indians could be useful in movements.

Birsa Munda created a distinct identity by imbibing the culture, dance, music of their community.

The tribals were treated with contempt by the British government, which led them to take part in a protest against it.

Detailed information

He was born in Ulihatu village of Ranchi district of Jharkhand. He was a prominent tribal leader and Indian freedom fighter. His father, Sugna Munda, was a religious leader while his mother, Karmi Hatu, was a housewife.

Being from the Munda tribe, the largest tribal community in the region, he had deep roots with them. From childhood, he draws inspiration from the various customs and traditions of his society.

He himself learned Munda language, dance, music to preserve his culture. The rich cultural repertoire of their community gave them a distinct identity.

Adopting the customs and traditions of their tribe deeply influenced their thinking. Because, every person among them used to participate equally in happiness and sorrow. He was impressed by the tribal communal way of life.

He strongly opposed the British against the unjust treatment of the tribal people by taking part in many agitations against it.

Surya Sen

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

22nd March, 1894 CE

12th January, 1934 CE

He participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement and other revolutionary activities for which he was sentenced to imprisonment for 2 years.

He played an important role in the Chittagong Arsenal attack by the revolutionaries.

Twelve revolutionaries were martyred and a large number of revolutionaries were captured in a violent encounter between a detachment of revolutionaries and a detachment of the British Indian Army near Jalalabad Hills.

Detailed information

He was also known as Masterda and his full name was Surya Kumar Sen. He was born on 22nd March, 1894 CE in a Baidya family in Chittagong, Rowzan Upazila, Chattogram District. He played a valuable role in the Indian freedom struggle against the British.

Surya Sen was participated in non-cooperation movement of Gandhiji. He was then imprisoned two years for taking part in anti-British revolutionary activities. He led a party in the Chittagong Armory attack on 18th April, 1930 CE. In this attack, the revolutionaries attacked the police and auxiliary forces arsenal.

According to him, 

“Humanism is the defining characteristic of a revolutionary.”

The aim of the movement was to destroy the basic facilities of city and steal weapons. But, the attack was a complete failure, as the revolutionaries could not captured the weapons.

On the contrary, within a few days, twelve of the revolutionaries involved in these activities lost their lives in an encounter with a unit of the British Indian Army near the Jalalabad Hills. A large group of rebels were captured in this encounter.

Even after hiding in nearby villages, Surya Sen and other revolutionaries continued raiding government people and property. He was finally caught by the British police on 16th February, 1933 CE. He was then tried and sentenced to death. Then, he was hanged on the day of 12th January 1934 CE. Other revolutionaries caught with him were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment.

Subramaniam Bharati

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

11th December, 1882 CE

12th September, 1921 CE

He was involved in the agitation against the British government by the INC Party.

Subramaniam Bharati worked for a long time in the Tamil daily Swadeshmitra. He made an invaluable contribution to Indian literature. A sense of patriotism can be seen in his writings. He inspired thousands of freedom fighters who fought for freedom.

Due to his revolutionary activities, in 1908, the British government issued a warrant for the arrest of Subramaniam Bharati. Due to which they had to take refuge in Pondicherry. From there he continued further revolutionary activities.

Detailed information

He belonged to a Tamil Brahmin family. He completed his education in Madras (now Chennai) in 1904 CE. Initially he did English translations for Tamil language magazines. After that he worked in Tamil daily Swadeshmitra.

His involvement in the political arena also led to his involvement in group of the armed movement of the INC Party against the British. This forced him to surrender to a French colony in Pondicherry (now Puducherry). There he spent almost 9 years in exile between 1910 and 1919.

His poems and essays composed during this period became popular in India. After returning in 1919, he was imprisoned by the British police, after which he returned to work for Swadeshmitra Daily. In the year 1921 CE, he was severely injured by elephants in the temple of Madras and due to this died tragically.

Dadabhai Naoroji

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

4th September, 1825 CE

30th June, 1917 CE

In 1892, he was elected Member of Parliament for Central Finsbury in London.

He opined on the administration of the British government which led to poverty in India along with its consequences, the taxes imposed by the government and the transfer of Indian wealth to England.

During his career he wrote many articles and books.

Detailed information

He was born on 14 November, 1889 CE in Allahabad. He completed his primary education at home from private tutors. He stood for the parliamentary elections in year of 1886 but was unsuccessful.

Then in 1892 CE, he was elected to the Parliament at Central Finsbury from the Liberal Party in London. This made him the first British Indian M.P. (MLA). He brought to the attention of the people to the adverse economic effects of British rule in India. It made him famous among Indians.

Then in 1895 CE, he was appointed as a member of the Royal Commission set up by the British Government at Indian expense. Due to the annual sessions of the Indian National Congress he became President thrice in 1886, 1893, and 1906. It was this party that led the national movement in India.

In 1906 session, his political maneuvering helped to push forward the split between the Jahal and Maval groups in the Congress party. In many of his articles, speeches and his book “Poverty in India and the British Rule”, he expressed his views on the unreasonable taxes imposed on India and how wealth in India was transferred to England.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

Brief Information

Date of Birth
Date of Death
Noteable Work

14th November, 1889 CE

27th May, 1964 CE

In 1920 CE, Jawaharlal Nehru took out Kisan March for the first time in Pratapgarh district of the state.

He participated as a representative of the INC Party in the Congress of Oppressed Nationalities in Brussels.

In 1923, he became the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee.

In 1926, he toured to England, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, and Russia.

In the 76th session of the All India Congress Committee held in Mumbai, Nehru proposed the Quit India Resolution.

Detailed information

He attended the Bankipur Congress session of 1912 as a delegate. He worked for some time as Secretary of the Home Rule League of Allahabad in 1919.

After Gandhi returned to India from Africa in 1915, he met Gandhiji for the first time at the 1916 Congress session in Lucknow. He was then inspired by ideas of Gandhiji on non-violent struggle and civil disobedience.

In Pratapgad district of Uttar Pradesh he first to held Kisan March in 1920. Then he was imprisoned twice for his participation in the Non-Cooperation Movement during 1920-22.

He participated in the Congress of Oppressed Nationalities in Brussels as an official representative of the Indian National Congress Party.

According to book of Sarvapalli Gopal named “Jawaharlal Nehru: A Biography”, in 1923, he became the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee. He has toured in countries like England, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, and Russia in 1926.

At the 42nd Madras Congress Session in 1927, Nehru tried to commit the party to the cause of independence. In 1928, he was lathi-charged while leading the anti-Simon Commission march in Lucknow.

On the day of 7th November, 1927 CE, he attended the tenth anniversary of the October Socialist Revolution in Moscow.

The Nehru Report is also known as the “Report of the Committee on Fundamental Rights and Minorities”. This report is an important document in the struggle of India for constitutional reform during the British colonial period.

His father Motilal Nehru was the chairman of the committee that prepared this report. Because of which the report was named after his father. Jawaharlal Nehru was one of the signatories of this report.

In 1928, he was established “Independence for India League”. The League advocated to permanently break the relations of British administration with India. He was the president of this league.

In 1956, he was elected as the President of the 41st Lahore Congress Session. This session is also known as “Lahore Resolution” or “Complete Swaraj Resolution”. The mission of party was adopted at the Lahore session to strive for complete independence from British colonial rule.

During the civil disobedience movement in 1930, he was arrested for his involvement in Salt Satyagraha. After that due to participation in civil disobedience movement, Gandhi was imprisoned in 1932. Due to the agitation against it, he was jailed again along with many other leaders.

While in Almora jail on the day of 12th February, 1935, he completed his autobiography. After being released from jail in 1936, he went to Switzerland to visit his wife Kamala Nehru, who was suffering from cancer.

Meanwhile, his wife died unfortunately on 28th February, 1936. He visited London and American leaders to confirm their commitment to her cause. During this visit, he spoke about freedom movement in India.

He went to Spain in July 1938. He then visited China in 1939 before the outbreak of World War II.

The purpose of this visit to China was to understand the situation in China, solidarity with anti-imperialist movements, seeking opportunities for cooperation, building international contacts, and promoting peace.

On 31st October, 1940, he was arrested for conducting a personal Satyagraha protesting forced participation of India in World War II.

Personal Satyagraha was a movement led by Mahatma Gandhi, which aimed to protest against specific issues while maintaining a non-violent approach. He was released in December 1941 along with other imprisoned leaders.

He presented the “Quit India” resolution at the 76th Bombay All India Congress Committee session.

Progress towards the direction of Indian self-government was stunted. Similarly, unilateral decisions of British government without consulting the Indian interests were causing dissatisfaction among the Indian leaders and the people.

As a result, the Quit India Movement was launched at the end of the Bombay (Mumbai) session. Demanding the British “Quit India”, the movement demanded an immediate end to British rule in India.

The Quit India Movement faced severe repression by the British. During this agitation many Indian leaders including Gandhi, Nehru and Patel were arrested and taken to Ahmednagar Fort.

Jawaharlal Nehru was imprisoned for nearly three years during the Quit India Movement that lasted from August 1942 to 1945. This was the longest and last detention of his life.

He was released in January 1945. At that time many INA officials were accused of treason. He tried to get legal protection for these officers. He visited South East Asia in March 1946.

On 6th July, 1946 CE, he was again elected as the President of the Congress for the fourth time. Similarly, he was elected three more times from 1951 to 1954.

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