|Identity||The First Chhatrapati and Founder of the Maratha Empire|
|Birth||February 19, 1630 at Shivneri Fort|
|Parents||Mother: Jijabai Bhosale, Father: Shahaji Raje Bhosale|
|Wives||Eight Queens of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:|
Saibai Nimbalkar, Soyarabai Mohite, Putlabai Palkar, Sagunabai,Sakvarbai Gaikwad, Kashibai Jadhav, Laxmibai, Gunavantabai
|Childrens||Sons: Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj, Daughters: Sakhubai Nimbalkar, Ranubai Jadhav, Ambikabai Mahadik, Rajkumaribai Shirke|
|Grandson||Chhatrapati Shahu Raje Bhosale (Satara)|
|Reign||1674 to 1680 (Officially After coronation)|
|Death||April 3, 1680 at Raigad|
|Companion and Knights||Tanaji Malusare, Baji Pasalakar, Murarbaji Deshpande, Bajiprabhu Deshpande, Hambirrao Mohite, Vyankoji Kanka|
Most common Questions:
Today, I am sharing before you Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Information in English. There were so many incidents that happened in his life which encourage us. So, I think this Biography of Shivaji Maharaj will definitely motivate you in your life. So, lets read and enjoy the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Information in English.
Rajamudra of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:
Pratipchandra Lekheva| Vardhishnu Vishwavandita || Shahsuno Shivasheysehyaa, Mudra Bhadraya Rajate||– Rajamudra
Meaning of Rajamudra:
The honor of this Mudra of Shahaji’s son Shivaji, will increase like the first day moon. The world will worship it & it will shine only for welfare of people.
India before the birth of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:
In 1527 CE, Bahmani Sultanate get disintegrated and divided into five pieces.
Sultan Nizam Shah and Adil Shah:
The Sultan of Ahmednagar was Nizam Shah. Similarly, the Sultan of Bijapur was Adil Shah. Because of Nizam Shah and Adil Shah, Maharashtra gets divided into two parts.
Therefore, there was always the conflict between Nizam Shah and Adilshah. The people of this state were unfortunate and desperate due to constant battle. Because of the struggle of the two kingdoms, the people were immensely frustrated.
In that period, time was not feasible the thought to establish an independent state. In those days, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj dreamed of Swarajya (Self Government). He had not only imagined but also implemented his wisdom, war skills (Gorilla Warfare), and incomparable politics to complete that dream.
Indian kings and emperors tortured people before the reign of Shivaji Maharaj. Kings and officials were not thinking about their subjects. Instead they were busy with their luxury lifestyle.
In contrast, there was a Emperor Sri Krishnadevaraya of south India. He not only taken care of the people, but also gave justice in their matters. He was well-known for his famous kingdom named “Vijayanagara.”
Historians believed that, Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje also read the books of Sri Krishnadevaraya. His reign also inspired Shivray to establish Hindavi Swarajya. Therefore, exactly like Ashta Diggaj Chhatrapati Shivray also establish effective administration system of Ashta Pradhan Mandal.
great saints in the era of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:
Before the birth of Shivaji, there were the saints like Shri Chakradhar Swami, Sant Namdev, Saint Dnyaneshwar, Saint Eknath, Sant Tukaram, Sant Ramdas Swami. These sages taught people the teachings of kindness, non-violence, devotion, service to God, patience, and brotherhood.
Birth of Shivaji Maharaj:
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was born on February 19, 1630, in the Shivneri fort near Pune district. Father of Shivaji Maharaj, Shahaji Raje Bhosale was an army chief in the court of Sultan Adilshah of Bijapur. At the time of birth of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, Shahaji Maharaj was not in the Shivneri fort. He went on a campaign to counter the attack of Mughals.
Shiva Jayanti (Birthday of Shivaji Maharaj) is celebrated twice a year in Maharashtra. You will ask, how can a birthday be celebrated twice? The answer is because of two separate chronologies, one is the Gregorian chronology, and the other is the Marathi chronology. There are lot of sources for Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Information in English and which providing news regarding Shiv Jayanti event happened at Raigad.
According to the Gregorian calendar, the birthday of Shivaji Maharaj comes on February 29. But, as per the Marathi calendar, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s birthday comes on the day of Falgun Vadya Tritiya. This means the third day of Falgun month, which comes annually from February to March. “Falgun” is the month, according to Marathi chronology. So, birthday according to Marathi calender varies every year in Gregorian calendar.
Thus, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s birth anniversary celebrated twice annually. On this day, in Maharashtra, the procession of Shivray’s birth anniversaries carries out. On this occasion, The statue of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj gets decorated with beautiful flowers. People use to shout Slogans of Shivaji Raje in that procession. You will see a massive crowd at Raigad Fort on that day.
Birth Place of Shivaji Maharaj:
Childhood and Early life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:
Education and Training of Shivaji Maharaj:
Guru Dadoji Kond Dev started the primary education of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj at the age of seven. Dadoji instructed to operate weapons like spear, dagger, sword, etc. He was considered as first master of Chhatrapati Shivaji. He also taught necessary War Strategies before battle.
Appointed Pandits (Scholars), and Jijabai taught him important subjects like Sanskrit, Politics, Vedas.
As a child, his mother, Jijabai, told the stories of Ramayana, Mahabharata, and great Emperors. The biography of emperor Sri Krishnadevaraya also inspired him a lot. From his childhood, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj had all the necessary skills to become a good leader. This Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Information in English has dedicated to fulfil your information need.
Height and weight of Shivaji Maharaj:
The weight of Shivaji Raje Bhosale:
Shivray donated gold equivalent to his weight during the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. According to Britisher Henry Oxyn Dane’s records, Maharaj’s weight was 160 pounds (73 kg). But its necessary to deduct the weight of the of his clothes, ornaments, weapons (sword, a dagger). He had also held a graven image of Lord Vishnu. It adds extra weight that we have to subtract that unnecessary weight.
Therefore, Chhatrapati Shivray was weighing around 145 pounds (66 kg). This weight is calculated after debiting the unnecessary weight.
Height of Shivaji Raje Bhosale:
Some historians believe that the height of Shivaji Raje was about 168 cm (5 ft, 6 inches).
Pledge of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj at Raireshwar temple:
At a young age 16, Shivray collected data about the secret routes and confidential information necessary for Swarajya.
To made a special announcement Shivray went to Raireshwar temple along with companions.
Shivrai cutted his little finger with sword and consecrate to the Rudra (Shiv Linga) with his blood.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje said to his colleagues, “This should be Hindavi Swarajya, it is the wish of God.” Let’s work together to fulfil this wish.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Quotes:
This should be Hindavi Swarajya; it’s the wish of God!
Original Slogan (Devnagari ): “हे हिंदवी स्वराज्य व्हावे, ही तर श्रींची इच्छा!”
Respect the women; otherwise, harsh punishment will be given.
Original Slogan (Devnagari ): “परस्त्रीबाबत आदर दाखवावा, अन्यथा कठोर शिक्षा केली जाईल.”
Once I will accept death, but not slavery!
Original Slogan (Devnagari ): “मरण आले तरी चालेल, पण शरण जाणार नाही!”
– Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
First Fort of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:
Shivaji Raje gathered faithful colleagues along with mobilizing army and weapons. He started his struggle from the Torna fort. Because it was one of the Big and neglected fortresses of Adilshah. Also, there were not enough security guards for protection.
Shivray captured the fort with a some Maratha soldiers who called as “Maavale”. So, conquering Torna fort, he get encouragement and it helped Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj to build a foundation of Swarajya.
As Torna for is really big and in the Marathi language, big called Prachand. Therefore, Shivray called that his first fort as “Prachandgad.”
Bhavani Talwar of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:
Marathi people believed that the Bhavani sword was the sword given by Bhavani Mata who is the Goddess of power and also called Adi Shakti means supreme goddess of Hindu religion.
As this topic is connected to religious belief, I don’t want to elaborate and make debate on whether or not this is correct. But, one thing sure this sword seems to be very special for Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.
I believed that Chhtrapati was great devotee of Bhavani Devi, therefore he given the names of his favored goddess to his sword. He used many swords but his three swords named Tulajai (Tulaja Phiranga), Bhavani, and Jagadamba was very famous among Marathi people.
Among those swords Jagadamba sword was currently in the Royal Collection Trust, St James’s Palace, London which was the personal museum of queen.
Bhavani Talwar London Museum:
The First capital of the Maratha Empire:
There was another partially built fort near Torna. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj captured that fort and completed the work and named it as “Rajgad”. Rajgad fort surrounded with dense forest and was a more protected place.
Therefore, Rajgad became the first capital of the Swarajya (Maratha Empire). Later, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj moved it to Raigad. Similarly, after Rajgad, they took control of several forts like Kondhana, Lohgad, Panhala, Sajjangad, Rohida, etc.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Policies for Relatives:
Shivray always considered responsibility more important than relatives.
Brother-in-law of Shivray:
Brother-in-law of Shivaji Raje named Balaji also started campaigns against Swarajya. So, Shivaji Raje had to fight against him.
Stepbrother of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:
Few people know that Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj had a stepbrother named Sambhaji. He also came in the path of Swarajya and tried to made problems. So, Shivaji Raje captured him. Then, Shivray sent him to another region to do work for Swarajya.
If anybody came in the path of Swarajya, then Shivray did not ever forgive them. Then whether that person belongs to the family or society. He always gave the same justice to family and public.
Victory of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj over Jawali:
After that, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj planned to take possession of “Jawali.” It was very challenging because Jawali had the fort of “Rairi.” There was dense forest surrounded around that fort. In that forest of Jawli, sunlight wouldn’t reach the ground even during the day. Hence, it was really tough to fight in such an impenetrable forest. As there were so many secret routes, and places that were unknown to strangers. These adverse conditions made it even more challenging to win the region of Jawali.
Chandrarao Yashvantrao More:
Yashvantrao More was the contemporary ruler of Javali region. He was very haughty ruler helding the title of “Chandrarao.”
Shivrai while in correspondence with him, he argued a lot with Chhatrapati. As a result, Chhatrapati Shivrai declared a war against him.
The battle of Javali was not so easy. But, finally result of war was get in the favor of Chhatrapati Shivrai.
Fort of Rairi:
The fort of Rairi has a height of 850 meters (2700 feet) from the seashore. It is settled in Sahyadri Mountain Range. After capturing of Jawali, Shivaji Raje renamed Rairi fort as “Raigad.”
Also, make the capital of Swarajya more secure, Maharaj shifted the capital from Rajgad to Raigad fort. There, Raigad fort became the new capital of Swarajya.
Adilshah Attacks on Swarajya:
After acquiring Rairi and Javali, the Adil Shahi court gets confused. There was a lady officer in the Adil Shahi court. Her name was Badiee Sahebin. She was responsible for carrying out the work of the court.
She asked in the Adil Shahi durbar, “Who will be ready for the settlement of Shivaji?” The court remained silent for some time. Then, the head of the Vai region named Afzal Khan came forward. He took a pledge to capture Shivrai alive or dead.
Attack of Afzal Khan on Swarajya:
Afzal Khan marched on Maratha Empire with ten thousand troops from Bijapur. Then, Shivrai went from Raj Gad to Pratap Gad. Because Around Pratapgad, there was a vast forest. So, it was difficult to carry such a large army, ammunition, cannons from the dense forest.
At that time, Afzal Khan wrote a letter to Shivaji Raje, requesting to return the forts. Afzal Khan asked Shivrai to surrender to him. Afzal Khan also promised Shivaji Raje to give a respectful position in the Adil Shahi court.
Shivaji Raje identified the plan of Afzal khan. Shivrai wrote the answer saying, “I am ready to return forts, I am your offender, I am sorry. You should visit the Pratap Gad, because I am afraid of coming there.”
Afzal Khan was pleased to hear that answer. He assumed Shivaji Raje as timid. Afzal Khan thought that “Shivaji seems to be a coward, so how will he be fighting with me?” As a result, Afzal Khan got ready for a visit.
Meeting with Afzal Khan:
At the appointed time, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and Afzal Khan agreed to meet along with ten bodyguards. After Shivrai went to the marquee, Afzal Khan came forward to welcome Shivrai. During Shivrai gave a hug, Afzal Khan pressed the head of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj below the right shoulder. Then, he vigorously attacked with a dagger.
The Killing of Afzal Khan:
However, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj suspected that he would suffer such an accident. Therefore, Shivrai had already had worn his armor. As a result, Maharaj survived due to armor. Subsequently, promptly Shivrai attacked Afzal Khan with the tiger claws. The intestines of the Afzal Khan came out, and Khan fell to the ground.
Jiva Mahala saved Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:
Hearing the indoor sound, Sayyad Banda comes into pavilion. Sayyad Banda was the one of the sharpest in swivel of belt( Dangpatta ). He attacked Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, but quickly Jiva Mahala comes inside. Jiva Mahala borne the impact of attack on his body. Then, Jiva Mahala killed Sayyad Banda with a strike of the belt.
Maratha soldiers lurked in surrounding forest of Pratapgad and waiting for attack. After came outside, Shivrai asked his companions to give a signal of war to hidden Maratha forces. Receiving the signal, Maratha army began the attack on the Adil Shahi army.
Adilshahi army was wholly defeated after some period. On second day in the entire Bijapur this news made stress among the people. Ali Adil Shah became really angry hearing the news of mightiness of Shivrai made.
Siege of Panhala:
In 1660 CE, Adil Shah sent his special commander to crush the Marathas. His name was “Siddhi Johar.” He was a ruthless commander of that time.
He surrounded the Panhala fort with around 40,000 Adilshahi troops outside. Shivaji Raje get trapped inside the fort of Panhala.
Siddhi intentionally started torturing innocent people near Panhala to surrender Shivrai.
Maharaj broke the siege of Panhala:
The stock of food was exhausted at Panhala fort. Therefore, Maharaj had to go out of the castle and go to another fort. So Shivaji Raje planned to get out of Panhala.
It was necessary to get out of the stronghold within the end of monsoon. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj left the fort with 600 selected warriors. To escape from the encirclement was not so easy, Shiva Kashid was ready to take the place of Shivray to distract the enemy’s attention.
Shiva Kashid used to serve Maharaj in the daily work, and he looked like Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. During the night Maharaj left the place, the heavy rainfall was showering. Shivaji left Panhala and headed towards Vishalgad.
The sacrifice of Shiva Kashid for Swarajya:
Shiva Kashid dressed like Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, with a crown of Maharaj on the head, and sat in Shivray’s palanquin, came out of the fort with a hundred soldiers. In the other way, Shivray with 600 warriors broke the siege and escaped from another secret passage of the Panhala.
Shiva Kashid’s palanquin caught after going out of the enemy’s vicinity. Siddhi Joher was in the misconception that Shivaji Maharaj had captured. Some of the Cavaliers and Fazal Khan, who saw the face of Shivaji Maharaj before, they recognized him after sometime. After that they all came to know that he was not Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. After real identification of Shiva Kashid, Siddhi Johar ordered to be beheaded.
As the king escaped from the siege, Siddhi was extremely angry and sent Siddhi Masood with a large army to pursue Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. In the end, Masood would reach Maharaj. Shivaji Raje falls in pain, and he thought it was tough to reach Vishalgad.
Battle of Ghodkhind (Ghod mountain pass):
Bajiprabhu Deshpande and his mastership:
Bajiprabhu Deshpande, the army chief, was with Maharaj at that time. He realized that the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was in danger. Therefore, Bajiprabhu says to Shivray, “You should go to Vishalgad with half soldiers, I stay here and stop enemies.”
Thought’s of Bajiprabhu Deshpande:
Shivaji Raje was not ready to leave Bajiprabhu. At that time, Bajiprabhu said that,
Swarajya is the more important goal, What happened, if I got killed, you will get hundreds of Baji Prabhu’s tomorrow, but Raje will not get back
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj continued path towards Vishalgad:
Maharaj tells Bajiprabhu that when we arrive at Vishalgarh, we will ask for three cannons to fire. When you hear that, you leave the mountain pass and move towards Vishalgarh. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was to chocked by the loyalty of Baji Prabhu, but he had big goals in front of him like Swarajya.
Time was of great value; there were the enemies on the back. Shivaji controls his emotions took the last met of Baji Prabhu. Baji Prabhu gave final submission to Shivaji Raje then Shivray continues to Vishalgad.
Bajiprabhu in the Ghodkhind mountain pass, they started preparation to fight the Adilshahi army. Survival of all the Maratha warrior determines their place. All the soldiers collect stones, then wait for Masood and his troops.
Fight in Ghod mountain pass:
At the same time, the first batch of Masood’s army comes to the mouth of the Ghodkhind mountain pass, while the Baji Prabhu allowed Masood’s military is to arrive the middle of the pass. As soon as Masood’s batch arrives in the middle of the pass, the Baji Prabhu points to Maratha soldiers. From the height of the mountain pass, the rocky stones they collect have attacked the opponents.
Marathas took advantage of the top place region to destroy many of the military units of Masood. However, because of the massive army of Masood, they finally encircle the Baji Prabhu and attack them all along. Bajiprabhu seriously injured due to the attack on all sides, yet he remains fighting in that situation.
Finally, the noise of cannons swings in the sky. A winning smile on Baji Prabhu’s cheeks, “Raje reached the fort, I have done my job, I now die happily,” Sometimes motherland asks for blood, at the same time the nationalist like Baji Prabhu spilled blood and kept the independence of homeland. I salute to such a brave warrior!
Bajiprbhu Deshpande Statue:
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj cut-off the Fingers of Shaista Khan:
Aurangzeb appointed his uncle named Shaista Khan as General of Deccan. On the order of Aurangzeb, Shaista Khan marched on the Swarajya with 1.5 lakh Mughal troops.
Therefore, to surrender Chhatrapati Shivaji in front of Shaista Khan, he started a sessions of looting the villages of Swarajya, destroying the temples, and damaging the crops of the farmers. Then, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj made the bold decision for the settlement of the Shaista Khan.
Shaista Khan at Lal Mahal (Red Palace):
That time, Shaista Khan was at Lal Mahal. The decision of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj had looked like suicide, because going into an army of one and a half lakhs was like committing suicide.
But Maharaj was very determined, he and his companions executed their plan during the night. They entered into the crowd of the marriage program and came to Pune.
In the year 1663, Maharaj entered the fort by breaking the wall of Lal Mahala.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj at Lal Mahal (Red Palace):
When the news comes to the that Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj entered the palace. After that, Shaista Khan doesn’t understand what to be done? But he had known, that Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was respects women. So, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and his companions would not check the rooms of women. That why he hides in women’s room wearing women’s clothes.
Attack of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj on Shaista Khan:
When the Maharaja’s companion identify Shaista Khan, the Maharaja chased him. While Shaista Khan jumps from the balcony, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj attacked with a sword, in which his three fingers cut off.
Because of this incident, including the honor of Shaista Khan, the honor of entire Mughal rule mixed with dust. When Aurangazeb heard this news he becomes furious with anger, he shouted, “Ohh Allah, What should I do with this Shivaji?”. After this incident, Aurangzeb sent Shaista Khan to Bengal.
Siege of Purandar:
Certainly, The Purandar was a very important fort of Shivaji Maharaj in the south of Pune. After looting Surat, Aurangzeb got very angry and sent the huge army with commander chief Mirza Jai Singh and Dileerkhan for assistance.
Fort of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:
Furthermore, fort commander of the Purandar fort was Murrarbaji Deshpande. He was one of the gallant and brave warriors of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.
Battle of Purandar:
Most noteworthy, Murrarbaji was very loyal to Hindavi Swarajya. Murrarbaji got ready for war with only 700 soldiers. He started the furious attack, he took advantage of the height of the fort and did an arrows attack on Mughal troops. He started the battle with swords in both hands. Murrarbaji put to death hundreds of Mughal troops. Murrarbaji fought with only a few soldiers but they also destroyed the Mughal army.
Dileerkhan saw the huge courage of Murrarbaji and offered him, high profile job with good salary and land as bounty. Murarbaji told to Dileerkhan that,
I would prefer sacrificing life, rather than staying in Aurangzeb’s camp! I am sweet to my chutney bread..!
Treaty of Purandar:
Shivarai cleverly talks to Mirza Jaising. But, Mirza Jaisingh asks Shivarai to meet Delhi Mughal Emperor.
According to this treaty, the Maharaja has to give 23 of his fortresses and 4 lakhs Hons of land to the Mughals. This treaty was made in the 18th century.
coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj on Raigad:
Work of Swarajya was going on excellently. But, Jijamata said that,
“This is only the time to anoint the kingdom and tell the whole world.”
On the order of Jeejamata, preparations for the coronation of Shiv Chhatrapati had been going on already before several months.
Finally, that golden day arose on 6th June, 1674 which everyone were waiting from a long time.
Early morning, after royal bath, Shivray went in durbar for ceremonial ablution. Several Bramhan started reciting holy mantras of anointment.
After that, Shivrai donated at least 1.5 lakhs hons to 5 Brahmins. Other Bramhan also gifted with Jewelry, clothes, accessories, food items, etc.
Then time came for “Suvarna Tula” which mean weighing the metal, jewelery, or other things equally with weight of Maharaj. In this ceremony Maharaj weighed with seven different metals. These metal generally used to donate in public.
After that, Shivrai went for the worshiping Gods including Tulja Bhavani which was his family goddess. Likewise, Shivray also worshiped the weapons. Then, procession of Shivray carried on the elephant. Shivray entered in the court at the time of Muhurt.
Shivray enthroned on a magnificent golden throne. The throne was carved with 32 divine signs. The throne is made with 32 man ( मन ). According to bharatdiscovery, “Man” is the Indian measurement for weight.
1 मन is equivallent to 40 killograms, so the throne was made of 1280 Killograms.
Specially invited Brahmin Pandit Gagabhatta held a golden umbrella over the head of Shivray and with blessings proclaims him as an “Chhatrapati.”
There was a happy environment everywhere, Jijamata was also happy. But, Shivray was in a deep thoughts and sorrow, because the companions on the basis of whom they achieved this success, they were no longer with him. Shivray became the Chhatrapati of public from that day.
Release of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:
As decided in Purandar treaty, on 12th May, 1666, Shivray went to Agra along with 5000 horsemen. On hearing the news that, the King of the Deccan was coming, the whole of Agra had come to see the Maharaj. All the people were eagerly watching like,
“Who is such a king? The one who has ran away the sleep of Aurangzeb!”
Courts prepare for Humiliation of Shivray:
Before the entry of Shivaji, Aurangzeb deliberately lifted his throne bit higher. On the gate, the long curtains were placed, so that every coming person have to bend a little bit to enter.
Chhatrapati Shivray in court of Aurangzeb:
Before entering the court, the curtain is inserted into the screen, Aurangzeb thinks Shivaji will have to bow down, but Maharaj hands the curtain up and enters the court.
All the associates of Shivray were stopped outside of court. Shivray and his son Sambhaji was asked to remove the footwear before coming into court. Son of Mirza Jaisingh named Ramsingh told above rules as customs of court, so Shivray accept it.
While entering inside, Shivray moved the curtains with left hand instead of bending inward.
Ramsingh was the son of Mirza Jai Singh. He was accompanied for the help of Maharaj. Ramsingh requested Shivray to Cornish before Badshah Aurangzeb. Instead Shivray chosen to gave salutation before the throne of Delhi, where kings like Prithviraj Chauhan spill blood for Hindustan.
After that, Shivray and prince Sambhaji went before Aurangzeb and presented some gifts with their hands. However, Aurangzeb have an another plan ready to insult Shivray. He purposefully stand him in the back row of Mansabdar (Generals). Moreover, Jaswant Singh who was not even fit to stand before the Shivray, was standed in the front row of Mansabdars.
Shivray quickly understood the purpose of Aurangzeb and now it is difficult to stop Shivray. Shivray said aloud, “Is our position such lower than that the coward Jaswant Singh who ran away from battlefield multiple times on seeing Marathas?” Ram Sing tried to calm Shivray, but he was not stopped. He said,
Once, I could accept the death, but not tolerate my insult!– Shivray
Shivray was now red with anger. No one dared to look upright in the court of Aurangzeb. So, strict words of Shivray made peace in the entire court. Chhatrapati Shivray gets angry and leaved the court. Subsequently, Aurangzeb sacked the conference and immediately intern the Maharaj under care of Faulad Khan.
No one knows for sure when and how he got out of this prison. According to Mughal documents, on day of 17th August, 1666 both Chhatrapati Shivray and Sambhaji hide himself into the boxes of sweets and escaped out.
Thus, even though this story is found in the Mughals records, it is still considered a true event happened in history. So, if you ever read about Chhatrapati Shivray then, you might definitely read this story once.
Escape of Shivray from the Agra:
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj knew that Aurangzeb was very cruel and ruthless, he did not even leave his brothers to get throne of Delhi. He wanted to do something with Chhatrapati Shivray but, Maharaj did a trick to get out of this complex situation.
At that time, Raghunath Korade, Trimbak Dabir, Hiroji Farjand and Madari Mehtar was in the service of Shivray. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj wrote a letter to Aurangzeb in which he demanded that,
Let the troops go back to Maharashtra that came with me.
Aurangzeb agreed and sent the soldiers back.
Afterwards, Shivray pretended that he became very sick. In order to made illusion to the Aurangzeb that he is really sick, Shivray used to sleep whole day and call the doctor everyday.
After this, the Maharaj wrote another letter in which Shivray wrote to Aurangzeb that,
To relief and cure from illness allow me to send sweets as gifts to poor and saints.
Aurangzeb also accepted that wish. Outside the camp of Maharaj, there was a tight security guards, everyday. They used to check all the boxes everyday, before sending it outside.
But, after a few weeks, the guards gets bored due to the daily same work, and the boxes began to go out without checking.
As a result, one day on August 17, 1666, Shivray and Sambhaji hide inside two boxes of Sweets and escape out from prison. Here Hiroji Farjand slept in his place as Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, and Madari Mehtar kept on serving his feet. So that the guards can see the Maharaj seems to be resting.
On next day, after the Maharaj was safely went out of the Agra. Then, both Hiroji and Madari also leave the prison, saying that, “We are going for bringing the medicines of Maharaj”.
Confusion in the Mughal camp:
After some time, the guards know that there is no one in the camp. Foulad Khan gets surprised and he does not understand what to do next. When Faulad Khan gave this news to Aurangzeb, fire of the feet of Aurangzeb went to the head. Aurangzeb turns red and launched a search campaign for Shivray and his companions.
Unfortunately in that search campiagn Raghunath Korade and Trimbak Dabir found to Foulad Khan. In the prision, they tortured both till death came to get the information about Shivray. These faithful companions of Shivray faced death without even taking word from their mouths.
Shivarai leaved prince Sambhaji in Mathura with Biswasrao and went toward Raigad. Maharaj had already prepared to face to enemy in way.
According to historians, Mathura – Allahabad – Banaras – Gaya – Gondwan – Gowalkonda – could be a way for Maharaj to come to Agra from Rajgad.
Mughals carried out search campaign throughout the India. When Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj arrived to Raigad this news spread like wind everywhere.
Shivray deliberately spread the fake news of death of prince Sambhaji on the way.
As a result, the search campaign of Mughals completely stopped. After some period, the atmosphere in the north became calm. Then, Vishwasrao himself taken Sambhaji and came to the palace of Raigad.
Terrible War at Sinhagad Fort:
Tanaji Malusare and his Devotion towards the Maratha Empire:
Few months after the treaty of Purandar, Jijamata told Shivray to take Kondhana back from Mughals. Kondhana was one of the strongest forts in Pune, Maharashtra. As a result, Chhatrapati Shivray already given responsibility to some knights before but they failed.
Tanaji Malusare was one of the old colleagues of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. He had went to Raigad to give an invitation to Maharaj and his family. Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje had told him that, he would not able to come for marriage. Because, he had to go on a mission of Kondana.
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Determination of Tanaji for the mission:
Tanaji said to Shivray,
“If you need to go for such a mission, then, what the use of mine?”
Tanaji took permission from Shivray and blessings from Jijamata. Then, He went on a mission with his brother Suryaji Malusare, and 300 Mavle.
Climbing of Kondhana was not a joke and on such sharp peak trekking not easy even for animals. Because, if you ever seen the straight edges of fort, then, it become very sharp and straight towards vale.
Mavale (Maratha troops) was born and bought up in such hills. So, they are quite familiar with the difficulties. If you look at Maratha History, then, you would realize that at beginning Maratha empire was based on forts. So, Maratha troops were really habitual with conditions of mountains, forests, rivers, peaks, flora and fauna of the nearby region.
Execution of Plan:
Maratha spy department had already detected the minimum security sites on fort. But, at that site there was straight edges which was the which impossible to climb.
Tanaji took pledge to make possible this impossible task.
It is said that, Tanaji had sent a trained lizard named “Yashavanti.”
Then, 2-3 mavle trekked the straight edges of fort along with long ropes and arrived at the top. Then, those Maratha soldiers thrown off the rope down to simplify the trekking of remaining companions.
Battle with Fort Commander Udaybhan:
Udaybhan was merciless rajput General and he was strict regarding the fort rules and security. Therefore Mirza Jaisingh the Mughal commander had assigned Udaybhan for Kondana fort.
After penetrating the minor boundry security, Maratha troops attacked inside.
Buckler of Tanaji get broken:
Udaybhan started the defending with Mughal troops. Now, on seeing Tanaji, Udaybhan began the battle furiously. Udaybhan was tall and powerful enough. Suddenly, due to continous strokes of the sward, buckler of Tanaji besplited.
Though, without surrendering, Tanaji binded shawl to hand and continued the fight. After fighting for long time both get wounded. No one was ready to back out or surrender.
Tanaji and Udaybhan fall down in battle:
Finally, both fell down and on other side Suryaji came inside through Kalyan gate.
After seeing his brother fell down, Maratha troops lost their courage and ran towards rope to escape out from fort. But, Suryaji cut off that rope and said
Your father has fell down, and I have cut off the rope. Now you have two choices, jump from fort and die or furiously fight with enemy and win!
After saw there was no way to escape out, Maratha troops fight like their last battle and won that battle.
After some period, this bad news spread on Raigad & entire Raigad drowned in to sorrow. When Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj got news about Tanaji, he became sad, as he was the close colleague of him. In memory of sacrifice contributed by Tanaji Malusare, Shivaji Maharaj renamed Kondana fort as “Sinhagad”.
Ashta Pradhan Mandal of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:
Ashta Pradhan Mandal of Shivaji Maharaj was an administrative body of eight elected ministers of the Maratha durbar. This council of ministers plays crucial roles in the campaigns against a despotic Mughal rule. Ashta Pradhan Mandal is the first successful council of ministers.
|1||Peshwa Or Pradhan (Prime Minister)||This was the most important post in the Maratha Kingdom. As he had all military rights, who actually deals with administrative affairs, social welfare. He had all powers that belong to a modern prime minister.|
|2||The Amatya/Mazumdar (Finance Minister):||He deals with all financial matters, also kept an account of the royal treasure of the Maratha Kingdom.|
|3||The Mantri (Interior Minister)||He has responsibility was to the kept account of an intelligent department (spy department).|
|4||The Sumant/Dabir (Foreign Minister)||His duty was to kept politically good relations with other states.|
|5||Pant Sacheev (Secretary)||His duty was to carry out daily proceeding of Durbar and to managing all communications of the King and preparing proclamations for the King.|
|6||The Pandit Rao (High Priest)||He was Head of religious matters. His duty was to carry out all spiritual functions, he was also dealing with work related to religion like fixing the date for ceremony or functions.|
|7||The Nyayadhish (Chief Justice)||He has the responsibility to give justice to the public, criminal and military affairs.|
|8||The Senapati (Commander In Chief)||He was Head of all Armed forces and defense of Kingdom. He was responsible for all activities like purchasing new weapons, selecting new troops in the Maratha army.|
Historians acknowledge that the idea of Ashta Pradhan Mandal has been taken from administrative system of Vijaynagar Empire.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj death:
It’s again debating topic many people proposed conspiracy theories like he was poisoned. And people involved in conspiracy were Annajipant Suranvis, Moropant Pingle, Balaji Chitnis, Rahuji Somnath and Hiroji Farzand.
It is strong possibility to have conspiracy regarding his death, but there was not clear proof in literary form. According to some British correspondence, in last days Shivray was suffered from fever and dysentry. So, On black day of April 3, 1680, this bright sun of the Maratha empire permanently subsided.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj established a strong foundation of Swarajya. Later, during the reign of Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj, under the leadership of Peshwa Bajirao, the Marathas expanded the Maratha Empire from Kalikat, Vellore in the south to Atack, Cuttack in North.
Policy of Chhatrapati Shivaji for All Religions:
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was belongs to a Hindu religion, but do not assume even in dream that, he was against Muslim or other religions. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj treated equally to all people regardless of religion, caste, and race, etc.
He fought so many wars in his life but, did not allow his soldiers to destroy or attack any religious places. He was Hindu but, did not force other religious people to convert.
In the court of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, there were several Muslim nobles, soldiers, knights. Siddi Ibrahim Khan was the head of the artillery of Shivray. Daulet Khan was one of the commander in Navy. From lower to higher positions Chhatrapati Shivray designated people based on their skills without looking their castes.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was not against any caste or religion but the injustice caused by foreign rulers. These tyrannical monarchies used to manipulate subjects in Kingdom for their own sake.
Gurus of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:
Here in Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Information in English, we talk about two masters of Shivray. First Guru of Chhatrapati Shivray was saint Ramdas Maharaj. He is consider political master of Chhatrapati Shivaji.
Saint Tukaram Maharaj was the spiritual Guru (Teacher or Master) of Shivaji Maharaj. He teached Shivaji Maharaj to fight for social welfare and not became sanyasi at this age.
Spiritual Guru of Shivray- Saint Tukaram Maharaj:
Farsighted Vision of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:
Importance of Forts:
In the open battlefield with a handful of soldiers, it would be difficult to fight against the strong enemies like Adilshah, Nizamshah, and Mughal, etc. Also, Shivray realized the importance of fortresses & its geographical advantage to fight against powerful enemy.
According to his motto “Whose forts, his kingdom” he began to rule. By the end of his life, Shivray had won 350 fortresses under the authority of the Maratha Empire.
He was the first who recognized Navy would help to protect the coastline from foreign invasions. So, Shivray built a strong Navy base and managed two fleets. Therefore, he is called the father of the Indian Navy.
In this biography, we can see the farsightedness of Maharaj in his rule. Chhatrapati Shivaji struggled for lifetime in order to live people happily in kingdom. It is proud to live in such a country where such a great King taken birth!
There are lot of Indian freedom fighters who made sacrifices to provide better life for future generations. But, now the question is that, are we really utilizing this freedom for good reason?
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