Great Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Information in English- 17th Century

I am trying to present before you Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Information in English. There were so many incidents that happened in his life which encourage us. So, this Biography of Shiva Chhatrapati will motivate you in your life.

Short Introduction: The first Chhatrapati and founder of the Maratha Empire
Date of birth: February 19, 1630
Birthplace: Shivneri fort, Pune district, Maharashtra
Parents: Father: Shahaji Raje Bhosale, Mother: Jijabai Bhosale
Sons: Chhatrapati Sambhaji Raje Bhosale, Chhatrapati Rajaram Raje Bhosale
Daughters: Sakhubai Nimbalkar, Ranubai Jadhav, Ambikabai Mahadik, Rajkumaribai Shirke
Grandson: Chhatrapati Shahu Raje Bhosale
Reign: 1674 to 1680 (After coronation)
Shivaji Raje’s Companion and Knights: Tanaji Malusare, Baji Pasalakar, Murarbaji Deshpande, Bajiprabhu Deshpande, Hambirrao Mohite, Vyankoji Kanka.

So, lets read and enjoy the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Information in English,

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Rajamudra of Shivaji Maharaj:

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Meaning of Rajamudra:

The honor of this Mudra of Shahaji’s son Shivaji will increase like the first day moon. The world will worship it & it will shine only for welfare of people.

India before the birth of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:

Indian kings and emperors tortured and oppressed people before the reign of Shivaji Maharaj. Kings and officials were not thinking about the country.

In contrast, there was a Powerful Hindu king like Emperor Sri Krishnadevaraya of south India. He not only took care of people but also gave justice to each people. He was well-known for his famous kingdom called Vijayanagara. Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje read the books of Krishnadevaraya. His reign also inspired Shivray to establish Hindavi Swarajya. His effective administration made him a mighty king of the South.

Sultan Nizam Shah and Adil Shah:

The Sultan of Ahmednagar was Nizam Shah. Similarly, the Sultan of Bijapur was Adil Shah. Because of Nizam Shah and Adil Shah, Maharashtra gets divided into two parts. Therefore, there was always the conflict between Nizam Shah and Adilshah. The people of this state were unfortunate and desperate due to constant battle. Because of the struggle of the two kingdoms, the people were immensely frustrated.

In that period, time was not feasible to establish an independent state. In those days, Shivaji Maharaj dreamed of Swarajya (Self Government). He had not only imagined but also implemented his wisdom, war skills (Gorilla Warfare), and incomparable politics to complete that dream.

The great saints of Shivaji Maharaj era:

Before the birth of Shivaji, there was a saint like Shri Chakradhar Swami, Sant Namdev, Saint Dnyaneshwar, Saint Eknath, Sant Tukaram, Sant Ramdas Swami. These sages taught people the teachings of kindness, non-violence, devotion, service to God, patience, and brotherhood.

Birth of Shivaji Maharaj:

Shivaji Maharaj was born on February 19, 1630, in the Shivneri fort near Pune district. Father of Shivaji Maharaj, Shahaji Raje Bhosale was an army chief in the court of Sultan Adilshah of Bijapur. At the time of Shivaji Maharaj’s birth, Shahji Raje (Shivarai’s father) was not in the Shivneri fort. He went on a campaign to counter the Mughal invasion.

Shiva Jayanti (Birth of Shivaji Maharaj)is celebrated twice a year in Maharashtra. You will ask, how can a birthday be celebrated twice? The answer is because of two separate chronologies, one is the Gregorian chronology, and the other is the Marathi chronology.

Shivaji Maharaj Birthplace at Shivneri Fort
Birth Place of Shivaji Maharaj, Image credits: Dhananjayd9730

According to the Gregorian calendar, the birthday of Shivaji Maharaj comes on February 29. But, as per the Marathi calendar, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s birthday comes on the day of Falgun Vadya Tritiya. This means the third day of Falgun month, which comes annually from February to March. “Falgun” is the month, according to Marathi chronology. So, birthday according to Marathi calender varies every year on Gregorian calendar.

Thus, Shivaji Maharaj’s birth anniversary celebrated twice annually. On this day, in Maharashtra, the procession of Shivray’s birth anniversaries carries out. On this occasion, The statue of Shivaji Maharaj gets decorated with beautiful flowers. People use to shout Slogans of Shivaji Raje in that procession. You will see a massive crowd at Raigad Fort on that day.

Birth Place of Shivaji Maharaj:

Shivaji Maharaj Birthplace- Shivneri Fort
Shivneri Fort where Shivaji Maharaj took Birth, Image Credits: Prabhat8051

Childhood and Early life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:

Education and Training of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:

Guru Dadoji Kondev started the primary education of Shivaji Maharaj at the age of seven. Dadoji instructed to operate weapons like spear, dagger, sword, etc. Pandit (Scholar), Dadoji, and Jijabai taught him important subjects like Sanskrit, Politics, Vedas, and War Strategies.

As a child, his mother, Jijabai, told the stories of Ramayana, Mahabharata, and great Emperors. The biography of emperor Sri Krishnadevaraya also inspired him a lot. From his childhood, Shivaji Maharaj had all the necessary skills to become a good leader.

Height and weight of Shivaji Maharaj:

The weight of Shivaji Raje Bhosale:

Shivray donated gold equivalent to his weight during the coronation of Shivaji Maharaj. According to Britisher Henry Oxyn Dane’s records, Maharaj’s weight was 160 pounds (73 kg). But its necessary to deduct the weight of the of his clothes, ornaments, weapons (sword, a dagger). He had also held a graven image of Lord Vishnu. It adds extra weight that we have to subtract that unnecessary weight.

Therefore, Chhatrapati Shivray was weighing around 145 pounds (66 kg). This weight is calculated after debiting the unnecessary weight.

Height of Shivaji Raje Bhosale:

Some historians believe that the height of Shivaji Raje was about 168 cm (5 ft, 6 inches).

Pledge of Shiva Chhatrapati at the Raireshwar temple:

At a young age, Shivray collected data about the secret routes and confidential information necessary for Swarajya.
To made a special announcement Shivray went to Raireshwar temple along with compliances.
Shivaji Raje said to his colleagues, “This should be Hindavi Swarajya, its the God’s wish.” Let’s work together to fulfill that wish.
He took Pledge for Swarajya when Shivaji Raje was only 16 years old.

Wives of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:

Saibai Nimbalkar, Soyarabai Mohite, Putlabai Palkar, Sagunabai,Sakvarbai Gaikwad, Kashibai Jadhav, Laxmibai, Gunavantabai

Childrens of Shivaji Maharaj:

Sons of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:

Chhatrapati Sambhaji Raje Bhosale and Chhatrapati Rajaram Raje Bhosale are the two sons of Shivaji Maharaj.

Daughters of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:

Sakhubai Nimbalkar, Ranubai Jadhav, Ambikabai Mahadik, Rajkumaribai Shirke

Pledge of Shivaji Maharaj at Rayareshwar Fort:

Thoughts of Shivaji Maharaj:

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Original Slogan (Devnagari ): “हे हिंदवी स्वराज्य व्हावे, ही तर श्रींची इच्छा!”

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Original Slogan (Devnagari ): “परस्त्रीबाबत आदर दाखवावा, अन्यथा कठोर शिक्षा केली जाईल.”

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Original Slogan (Devnagari ): “मरण आले तरी चालेल, पण शरण जाणार नाही!”

– Shivaji Maharaj

First Fort of Shivaji Maharaj:

Shivaji Raje gathered faithful colleagues along with mobilizing army and weapons. He started his struggle from the Torana fort. Because it was one of the Big and neglected fortresses of Adilshah. Also, there were not enough security guards for protection. So, Shivray captured the fort with a few soldiers. As a result, conquering Torna fort, Shivaji Maharaj built a foundation of Swarajya. In the Marathi language, Big called Prachand. Therefore, Shivray called that his first fort as “Prachandgad.”

Bhavani Talwar of Shivaji Maharaj:

 

 

Bhavani Talwar of Shivaji Maharaj
Image Credits: hindudevotionalblog

Some Marathi people believed that the Bhavani sword was the sword given by Bhavani Mata who is the Goddess of power and also called Adi Shakti means supreme goddess of Hindu religion.

As this topic is connected to religious belief, I don’t want to elaborate and make debate on whether or not this is correct. But, one thing sure this sword seems to be very special for Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.

I believed that Chhtrapati was great devotee of Bhavani Devi, therefore he given the names of his favored goddess to his sword. He used many swords but his three swords named Tulaja Phiranga, Bhavani, and Jagadamba was very famous among Marathi people.

Among those swords Jagadamba sword was currently in the Royal Collection Trust, St James’s Palace, London which was the personal museum of queen.

Bhavani Talwar London Museum:

Bhavani Talwar London Museum

The First capital of the Maratha Empire:

There was another partially built fort near Torna. Shivaji Maharaj captured that fort and completed the work and named it as “Rajgad”. Rajgad fort surrounded with dense forest and was a more protected place. Therefore, Rajgad became the first capital of the Swarajya (Maratha Empire). Later, Shivaji Maharaj moved it to Raigad. Similarly, after Rajgad, they took control of several forts like Kondhana, Lohgad, Panhala, Sajjangad, Rohida, etc.

Shivaji Maharaj Policies for Relatives:

Shivray always considered responsibility more important than relatives. Few people know that Shivaji Maharaj had a stepbrother named Sambhaji. Sambhaji always tried to make problems in the way of Swarajya.

Shivaji Raje’s brother-in-law’s name was Balaji. He also started campaigns against Swarajya. So, Shivaji Raje had to fight against him. Shivray’s stepbrother Sambhaji also came in the path of Swarajya. So, Shivaji Raje captured him. Then, Shivray sent him to another region to do work for Swarajya.

If anybody came in the path of Swarajya, then Shivray did not ever forgive them. Then whether that person belongs to the family or society. He had always the same feeling for family and public.

Shivaji Maharaj’s Victory over Jawali:

After that, Shivaji Maharaj planned to take possession of “Jawali.” It was very challenging because Jawali had the fort of “Rairi.” There was dense forest surrounded around that fort. In that forest of Jawli, sunlight wouldn’t reach the ground even during the day. Hence, it was really tough to fight in such an impenetrable forest. As there were so many secret places that were unknown to strangers. There were also secrete routes to which new people unaware. These adverse conditions made it even more challenging to win Jawali.

The fort of Rairi has a height of 850 meters (2700 feet) from the seashore. It’s settled in Sahyadri Mountain Range. After capturing of Jawali, Shivaji Raje renamed Rairi fort as “Raigad.” To secure the capital of Swarajya, Maharaj shifted the capital from Rajgad to Raigad fort. Therefore, Raigad became the new capital of Swarajya.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Information in English
Shivaji Maharaj, Image Credits: Wikimedia

Adilshah Attacks on Swarajya:

After acquiring Rairi and Jawali, the Adil Shahi court gets confused. There was a lady officer in the Adil Shahi court. Her name was Badi Sahebin. She was responsible for carrying out the work of the court. She asked in the Adilshahi durbar, “Who will be ready for the settlement of Shivaji Maharaj?” The court remained silent for some time. Then, the head of the Vai region named Afzal Khan came forward. He took a pledge to capture Shivray alive or dead.

Attack of Afzal Khan on Swarajya:

Afzal Khan marched on Maratha Empire with ten thousand troops from Bijapur. Then Shivray went from Rajgad to Pratapgad. Because Around Pratapgad, there was a dark forest. So, it was difficult to carry such a large army, ammunition, cannons from the dense forest. At that time, Afzal Khan wrote a letter to Shivaji Raje, requesting to return the forts. Afzal Khan asked Shivray to surrender to him. Afzal Khan also promised Shivaji Raje to give a respectful position in the Adil Shahi court.

Shivaji Raje identified the plan of Afzal khan. Shivray wrote the answer saying, “I am ready to return forts, I am your offender, I am sorry. You should visit the Pratapgad because I am afraid of coming there.” Afzal Khan was pleased to hear that answer. He assumed Shivaji Raje as timid. Afzal Khan thought that “Shivaji seems to be a coward, so how will he be fighting with me?” As a result, Afzal Khan got ready for a visit.

Meeting with Afzal Khan:

At the appointed time, Shivaji Maharaj and Afzal Khan agreed to meet along with ten bodyguards. After Shivray went to the marquee, Afzal Khan came forward to welcome Shivray. During Shivray gave a hug, Afzal Khan pressed the head of Shivaji Maharaj below the right shoulder. Then, he vigorously attacked with a dagger.

The Killing of Afzal Khan:

However, Shivaji Maharaj suspected that he would suffer such an accident. Therefore, Shivaji Maharaj had already had worn his armor. As a result, Shivaji Raje survived due to armor. Subsequently, promptly Shivray attacked Afzal Khan with the tiger claws. The intestines of the Afzal Khan came out, and Khan fell to the ground.

Jiva Mahala saved Shivaji Maharaj:

Hearing the indoor sound, Sayyad Banda comes in. He attacked Shivaji Maharaj, but quickly Jiva Mahala comes. Jiva took the attack of Sayyad Banda taken on his body. Jiva Mahala endured the attack of Sayyad Banda. Then, Jiva Mahala killed Sayyad Banda with a strike of the belt.
Maratha soldiers lurked in surrounding forest of Pratapgad to attack. Shivray had given a signal to hidden Maratha forces. Then, that Maratha army attacked the Adilshahi army.

After receiving the signal, the Maratha army attacked Adilshahi forces. Adilshahi army was wholly defeated. This news made stress in the Bijapur. Ali Adil Shah became very angry due to that mightiness of Shivray made.

Siege of Panhala:

In 1660 AD Adil Shah sent his special commander to crush the Marathas. His name was “Siddhi Johar.” He was a ruthless commander.
He surrounds the 40,000 Adilshahi army outside Panhala fort. Shivaji Raje trapped in the fortress of Panhala.

Panhala Fort Images
Shivaji Maharaj fort Panhala Ambarkhana Entrance, Image Credits: Ankur P

To surrender Shivaji Maharaj Siddhi started torturing innocent people near Panhala.

Maharaj broke the siege of Panhala:

The stock of food was exhausted at Panhala fort. Therefore, Maharaj had to go out of the castle and go to another fort. So Shivaji Raje planned to get out of Panhala.

It was necessary to get out of the stronghold within the end of monsoon. Shivaji Maharaj left the fort with 600 selected warriors. To escape from the encirclement was not so easy, Shiva Kashid was ready to take the place of Shivray to distract the enemy’s attention.

Shiva Kashid used to serve Maharaj in the daily work, and he looked like Shivaji Maharaj. During the night Maharaj left the place, the heavy rainfall was showering. Shivaji left Panhala and headed towards Vishalgad.

The sacrifice of Shiva Kashid for Swarajya:

Shiva Kashid dressed like Shivaji Maharaj, with a crown of Maharaj on the head, and sat in Shivray’s palanquin, came out of the fort with a hundred soldiers. In the other way, Shivray with 600 warriors broke the siege and escaped from another secret passage of the Panhala. Shiva Kashid’s palanquin caught after going out of the enemy’s vicinity. Siddhi Joher was in the misconception that Shivaji Maharaj had captured. Some of the Cavaliers and Fazal Khan, who saw the face of Shivaji Maharaj before, they recognized him after sometime. After that they all came to know that he was not Shivaji Maharaj. After real identification of Shiva Kashid, Siddhi Johar ordered to be beheaded.

As the king escaped from the siege, Siddhi was extremely angry and sent Siddhi Masood with a large army to pursue Shivaji Maharaj. In the end, Masood would reach Maharaj Maharaj. Shivaji Raje falls in pain, and he thought it was tough to reach Vishalgad.

Battle of Ghodkhind (Ghod mountain pass):

Bajiprabhu Deshpande and his mastership:

Bajiprabhu Deshpande, the army chief, was with Maharaj at that time. He realized that the life of Shivaji Maharaj was in danger. Therefore, Bajiprabhu says to Shivray, “You should go to Vishalgad with half soldiers, I stay here and stop enemies.”

Thought’s of Bajiprabhu Deshpande:

Shivaji Raje was not ready to leave Bajiprabhu. At that time, Bajiprabhu said that “Swarajya is the more important goal, What happened, if I got killed, you will get hundreds of Baji Prabhu’s tomorrow, but Shivaji Maharaj will not get back.”

Shivaji Maharaj continued path towards Vishalgad:

Maharaj tells Bajiprabhu that when we arrive at Vishalgarh, we will ask for three cannons to fire. When you hear that, you leave the mountain pass and move towards Vishalgarh. Shivaji Maharaj was to chocked by the loyalty of Baji Prabhu, but he had big goals in front of him like Swarajya. Time was of great value; there were the enemies on the back. Shivaji controls his emotions took the last met of Baji Prabhu. Baji Prabhu gave final submission to Shivaji Raje then Shivray continues to Vishalgad.

Bajiprabhu in the Ghodkhind mountain pass, they started preparation to fight the Adilshahi army. Survival of all the Maratha warrior determines their place. All the soldiers collect stones, then wait for Masood and his troops.

Fight in Ghod mountain pass:

At the same time, the first batch of Masood’s army comes to the mouth of the Ghodkhind mountain pass, while the Baji Prabhu allowed Masood’s military is to arrive the middle of the pass. As soon as Masood’s batch arrives in the middle of the pass, the Baji Prabhu points to Maratha soldiers. From the height of the mountain pass, the rocky stones they collect have attacked the opponents.

Marathas took advantage of the top place region to destroy many of the military units of Masood. However, because of the massive army of Masood, they finally encircle the Baji Prabhu and attack them all along. Bajiprabhu seriously injured due to the attack on all sides, yet he remains fighting in that situation.

Finally, the noise of cannons swings in the sky. A winning smile on Baji Prabhu’s cheeks, “Raje reached the fort, I have done my job, I now die happily,” Sometimes motherland asks for blood, at the same time the nationalist like Baji Prabhu spilled blood and kept the independence of homeland. I salute to such a brave warrior!

Bajiprbhu Deshpande Statue:

Baji Prabhu Deshpande statue at Panhala Fort
Baji Prabhu Deshpande Statue in Panhala Fort By Ankur P posted in Flickr and licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Baji Prabhu Deshpande Statue in Panhala Fort By Ankur P posted in Flickr and licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0[/caption]

Shivaji Maharaj cut off the Shahist Khan’s fingers:

Aurangzeb’s uncle, Shahistakhan, was appointed as General of Deccan by Aurangzeb. On the order of Aurangzeb, Shahistakhan marched on the Swarajya with 1.5 lakh troops.

Therefore, to make Shivaji surrender in front of Shahistekhan, he started a session of looting the villages of Swarajya, destroying the temples, and damaging the crops of the farmers. Then, the Shivaji Maharaj made the bold decision to the settlement of the Shahista Khan.

Shahistekhan at Lal Mahal (Red Palace):

That time, Shahistekhan was at Lal Mahal. The decision of Shivaji Maharaj had looked like suicide because going into an army of one and a half lakhs was like committing suicide.
But Maharaj was very determined, he and his companions executed their plan during the night. They entered into the crowd of the marriage program and came to Pune.

In the year 1663, Maharaj entered the fort by breaking the wall of Lal Mahala.

Shivaji Maharaj at Lal Mahal (Red Palace):

When the news comes to the that Shivaji Maharaj entered the palace. After that, Shahistekhan doesn’t understand what to be done? But he had known, that Shivaji Maharaja was respects women. So Shivaji Maharaj and his companions would not check the rooms of women. That why he hides in women’s room wearing women’s clothes.

Shivaji Maharaj’s Attack on Shahistekhan:

When the Maharaja’s companion identify Shahista Khan, the Maharaja chases him. While Shahistahan jumps from the balcony, Shivaji Maharaj attacked with a sword, in which his three fingers cut off.

 

Shivaji Maharaj cutting Shahistekhan fingers
Shivaji Maharaj cutted off Fingers of Shahistekhan, Image Credits: Abhay Bhosale

Because of this incident, including the honor of Shahista Khan, the honor of entire Mughal rule had mixed with dust. When Aurangazeb heard this news he becomes furious with anger, he shouted, “Ohh Allah, What should I do with this Shivaji?”. After this incident, Aurangzeb sent Shahistahan to Bengal.
But, that didn’t minimize the gallantly of Shivaji Maharaj.

Terrible War at Sinhagad Fort:

Tanaji Malusare and his Devotion towards the Maratha Empire:

Few months after the treaty of Purandar, Jijamata had told to take Kondhana back from Mughals. Kondhana was one of the strongest forts in Pune, Maharashtra. Tanaji was one of the old colleagues of Shivaji Maharaj, he went to give an invitation to Maharaj and family. Shivajiraje had told him that, he would not here to come for marriage, he had to go on a mission to capture Kondhana.

Determination of Tanaji to went for the mission:

Tanaji had said, “What is the use of me? if for such mission you need to go”. Tanaji took permission from Shivray and blessings from Jijamata and went on a mission with his brother Suryaji Malusare.

Execution of plan with Few Colleagues:

He started his plan to capture Kondhana, first of all, he went at bottom of Kondhana with 300 colleagues. 5 to 6 of troops started to trek from the sharp edge of the fort as there was less security for entering into the fort. Trekking of Kondhana was not a joke as it was sharp edge straight towards vale, not easy even for animals to trek. But, Maratha troops was sharp and they had a habit to trek Sahyadri as well as forts like Kondhana.

So, 5 to 6 of Maratha troops, after reaching the head of a fort, they bound wire rope to the tree and threw wire rope towards the bottom of a fort. Now, it became easy for remaining troops to trek easily and reached the head of a fort.

Battle with Fort Commander Udaybhan:

Then, the battle had begun, Tanaji was fighting with fort commander Udaybhan. Even more, Udaybhan was brave rajput General and very strict about rules and security. Therefore, Mirza Jaisingh posted him to Kondhana fort. He was Rajput and posted on Kondhana by Mirza Jaisingh.

Buckler of Tanaji get broken:

Tanaji and Udaybhan both were fought furiously. Suddenly, Buckler of Tanaji besplited due to strokes of the sward. Therefore, Tanaji bound shawl with hand and continued the fight, both got wounds on the body by strokes of one another.

Tanaji and Udaybhan fall down in battle:

Finally, both fell down and other side Suryaji came inside of fort through Kalyan gate. After sawing his brother fell down, Maratha troops lost their courage and ran towards wire rope to escape out from fort but Suryaji cuts wire rope and encourages to fight with Mughal troops. After saw there was no way to escape out, Maratha troops fight like their last battle and won that battle.

This battle was fought in 1670 when Shivaji Maharaj got news about Tanaji, Shivajiraje and Jijamata became sad, as he was one of the close colleagues of Shivaji Maharaj. In memory of battle contributed by Tanaji Malusare, Shivaji Maharaj renamed Kondhana fort “Sinhagad fort”.

Siege of Purandar:

Certainly, The Purandar was a very important fort of Shivaji Maharaj in the south of Pune. After looting Surat, Aurangzeb got very angry and sent the huge army with commander chief Mirza Jai Singh and Dileerkhan for assistance.

Fort of Shivaji Maharaj:

Purandar Fort- Siege of Purandar
The Fort of Shivaji Maharaj: Purandar, Image Credits: Abhijeet Safai

Furthermore, Fort commander of the Purandar fort was Murrarbaji Deshpande. He was one of the gallant and brave warriors of Shivaji Maharaj.

Battle of Purandar:

Most noteworthy, Murrarbaji was very loyal to Hindavi Swarajya. Murrarbaji got ready for war with only 700 soldiers. He started the furious attack, he took advantage of the height of the fort and did an arrows attack on Mughal troops. He started the battle with swords in both hands. Murrarbaji put to death hundreds of Mughal troops. Murarbadi fought with only a few soldiers but they also destroyed the Mughal army.

Dileerkhan saw the huge courage of Murrarbaji and offered him, high profile job with good salary and land as bounty.Murarabji told to Dileerkhan that,

[easy-tweet tweet=”I would prefer sacrificing life, rather than staying in Aurangzeb’s camp! I am sweet to my chutney bread..!” user=”historicnation” hashtags=”#shivajimaharaj, #shivajiforts, #sahyadri, #shivajiraje, #warrior, #marathaempire, #swarajya, #history” url=”https://historicnation.com/shivaji-maharaj”]

Shivaji Maharaj at Aurangazeb's Court
Shivaji Maharaj in the court of Aurangazeb, Author: M. V. Dhurandhar, Image Credits: Wikimedia

Ashta Pradhan Mandal of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:

Ashta Pradhan Mandal of Shivaji Maharaj was an administrative body of eight elected ministers of the durbar of the Maratha Empire. This council of ministers plays crucial roles in the campaigns against a despotic Mughal rule. This Ashta Pradhan Mandal is the first successful council of ministers.

Peshwa or Pradhan (Prime minister):

This was the most important post in the Maratha Kingdom. As he had all military rights, who actually deals with administrative affairs, social welfare. He had all powers that belong to a modern prime minister.

The Amatya/Mazumdar (Finance Minister):

He deals with all financial matters, also kept an account of the royal treasure of the Maratha Kingdom.

The Mantri (Interior Minister):

He has responsibility was to the kept account of an intelligent department (spy department)

The Sumant/Dabir (Foreign Minister):

His duty was to kept politically good relations with other states.

Pant Sacheev (Secretary):

His duty was to carry out daily proceeding of Durbar and to managing all communications of the King and preparing proclamations for the King.

The Pandit Rao (High Priest):

He was Head of religious matters. His duty was to carry out all spiritual functions, he was also dealing with work related to religion like fixing the date for ceremony or functions.

The Nyayadhish (Chief Justice):

He has the responsibility to give justice to the public, criminal and military affairs.

The Senapati (Commander in Chief):

He was Head of all Armed forces and defense of Kingdom. He was responsible for all activities like purchasing new weapons, selecting new troops in the Maratha army.

Death of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:

It’s again debating topic many people proposed conspiracy theories like he was poisoned. And people involved in conspiracy were Annajipant Suranvis, Moropant Pingle, Balaji Chitnis, Rahuji Somnath and Hiroji Farzand. But there was not any proof for that conspiracy. Historians also not accept that theory of conspiracy. In last days Shivray was suffered from fever and dysentry. At last black day of 3 april 1680 come up and the Sun of maratha empire permantly lost.

Shivaji Maharaj established a strong foundation of Swarajya. Later, during the reign of Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj, under the leadership of Peshwa Bajirao, the Marathas expanded the Maratha Kingdom from Kalikat, Vellore in the south to Atack, Cuttack in North.

Shivaji Maharaj Samadhi at Raigad
Shivaji Maharaj Samadhi – Raigad Fort, Image Credits: Wikimedia , Author: Adityagokhale1986

Chhatrapati Shivaji’s policy towards other religions:

Shivaji Maharaj had a Hindu religion, so some people think that he was against Muslim religions. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj had treated equally to peoples of all religions.
He fought so many wars in his life but did not allow any religious places to hit in any battle.
He was Hindu so didn’t force other religious people to convert.

In the court of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, there were several Muslim nobles, soldiers, knights. Siddi Ibrahim Khan was the head of the Shivaji Maharaj’s artillery. If Shivaji Maharaj was anti-Muslim, why would he have kept a Muslim man in such a high post?

Chhatrapati Shivaji was not against any caste or religion but the injustice caused by foreign rulers. These tyrannical monarchies used to manipulate subjects in Kingdom for their own sake.

Gurus of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:

Sant Tukaram Maharaj was the spiritual Guru (Teacher) of Shivaji Maharaj. He teached Shivaji Maharaj to fight for social welfare and not became sanyasi at this age.

Santa Tukaram Maharaj:

Santa Tukaram- Spiritual Teacher
Santa Tukaram Maharaj, Image Credits: Wikimedia, Source: Prabhat

Farsighted Vision of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj:

It would be difficult to fight against strong enemies like Adilshah, Nizamshah, and Mughal, while in the open ground with a handful of soldiers. Also, at a very young age, Shivray realized the importance of inaccessible forts and fortresses to fight against the enemy from all sides.

Importance of Forts:

According to the motto “Whose castles, his kingdom” he began to rule. By the end of his life, Shivarai had won 350 fortresses under the authority of the Maratha Empire.
Navy was needed to protect the coastline from foreign invasions. For this, Shivray builds a strong Navy. Because of this, he is called the father of the Indian Navy.

In his biography, we can see the farsighted of Maharaj in the ruling. Shivaji struggled all his life for the sake of people to live comfortably in his kingdom. It is proud to live in a country where such a great King took birth!

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Here you can read important freedom fighters of Indian History:

Freedom Fighters of India

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Featured Image Credits: Image Credits: Chinmaya Panda under CC BY-SA 3.0

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