7 Historical Inventions List of Albert Einstein

by Sep 29, 2023


We all know that invention is the core part of any kind of development. Scientists played a key role in invention. And we all know how inventions of Albert Einstein contributed to the development of the world.

This article is in detail so, if you are in hurry feel free to bookmark or you can read conlcusion section directly where I concluded with most importatnt part of article.

Albert Einstein was a renowned physicist who made groundbreaking discoveries in the fields of relativity, quantum mechanics, and cosmology. We widely regarded him as one of the greatest and most influential scientists of all time.

Father of Albert Einstein was a physicist. One day, his father brought a compass with him. It surprised Albert when he saw that compass. Its needle moves automatically according to the direction.

Albert Einstein Inventions List - Albert Einstein doing research

It was a novel experience for him and increased his eagerness about invisible powers like gravitation.

As we know, a biography of Albert Einstein is very much inspirational for everyone. Because of record-breaking inventions of Albert Einstein.

The most noteworthy thing is most people only know his theory of relativity. So, I am going to introduce you to all the Albert Einstein inventions with list and dates.

He was not an inventor in the traditional sense. But made significant contributions to theoretical physics that led to a new understanding of the physical world.

“Beyond Einstein” Research Project by NASA

Motive of NASA Program - Beyond Einstein Program
Research Project “Beyond Einstein Program” by NASA

The Albert Einstein Inventions motivated other scientists to explore the creation of the universe.

As a result, the big-bang theory came and told about the universe, black hole, dark matter, white matter, and dark energy, etc. Current space project of NASA based on his thoughts and named as “Beyond Einstein” program.

The limits of General Theory of relativity are being explored in the project. It included several observational cosmology probes and two space observatories in the project. After the Great Observatories program ends, the program concludes with the Einstein Vision probes.

1. Electric Gyrocompass

One of his first inventions was a device called the “electric gyrocompass”, which he developed while working as a patent clerk in Switzerland in 1902.

Albert Einstein Inventions List - Electric Gyrocompass
Electric Gyrocompass

The electric gyrocompass was a navigational tool that used a spinning wheel to determine the direction of a magnetic field. It was like a mechanical gyrocompass, but it did not require any external power source.

The invention that Einstein patented in 1904 never entered commercial production. He later donated his patent rights to the University of Zurich.

2. Brownian motion

It was one of the most significant discoveries in Science. In experiments, he observed the zig-zag movement of particles. Therefore, it helps to prove the existence of molecules and atoms.

Theory of Einstein helped to predict particle motion, which distributed randomly within a fluid. Indeed, the discovery sets up a base for almost every branch of science.

3. The reason behind the Blue sky

Einstein was very curious about our universe. He always thinks about the reason behind things that happened in the surroundings. Likewise, he was curious about the sky and its color. As every people know before, the sky is blue! But, nobody tried to find the reason behind it.

Albert Einstein Inventions List - Sky Blue is an Example of Scattering of light
Scattering of light from molecules makes the color of sky blue

Einstein proved the sky is blue because of the scattering of light from molecules. He came with a proper formula to calculate the scattering of light.

4. Quantum theory of Light

In 1905, Einstein came with quantum theory. Theory tells that light consists of packets of energy called photons. Another thing is packets have both properties of particle and wave. He explains the phenomenon known as the “wave-particle duality”.

According to Sciencing.com, when we energize atoms, then electrons migrate from current orbit to upper higher orbit. But they do not stay in those alien orbits for long and get back releasing packets of energy called photons. You can get more idea about it.

Production of Photons
Energizing atom result in a change in orbits of electron and packet of energy produced during the process called as photons

5. Photoelectric Effect

When light rays hit the metal surface, it can emit the electrons. This effect is called the photoelectric effect. In a similar manner, the electrons that are emitted are called photo-electrons.

Practical Implementation

Albert Einstein Inventions List - Television made by Cathod Ray Tube
Old Fashioned Television made with Cathode Ray Tubes

The photoelectric effect is a phenomenon in which when light is fall the surface of a metal ejects from it. One application of this effect is in television transmission.

Old-fashioned TVs use “cathode ray tubes” to shoot electron beams at a screen. When the electrons hit them, the compound “phosphors” which is coated on the screen glows.

The energy and speed of the electrons depend on the “frequency” and “intensity” of the light that causes the photoelectric effect. Varying these factors can create different colors and images on the screen.

6. Theory of General Relativity

Einstein researched on many things of the Universe. Out of his work, Most Noteworthy research is the world famous theory of relativity. This theory explains how time and motion are relative to the observer.

This theory explains that time and motion depend on the frame of reference of the observer.

Mass-Energy Equation

This theory contains a very famous mass-energy equation that is,


Where, m is the mass, c is the speed of light and considered as a constant value, E is the Energy

From this equation, Einstein proved that energy and mass can be converted into each other by multiplying the mass with the square of the speed of light. Hence, Einstein proved that a small amount of mass contains extreme energy.

This theory contributed much and set the fundamental base for future inventions. Today, many technologies using Albert Einstein’s research to develop further. He changed the angle and perception of researchers to look at the world.

Practical Implementation

The most surprising thing is that Albert Einstein was not directly associated with atomic bomb development. Although his work and research used in bomb development. Therefore, his name often connected with an atomic bomb invention.

Manhattan Project

Uranium 235 Electromagnetic separation Plant in Manhattan Project
Alpha I Racetrack part of Uranium 235 Electromagnetic separation Plant at Y-12 in Manhattan Project

Manhattan project started in 1939; this project cost about 2 billion US dollars. But this project increases the employment of people. Later, Soviet spies penetrated the tight security of the Manhattan Project.

Also, they gathered nuclear material and related documents. German scientists started a project on nuclear weapons.

Then, the US created the first atomic weapon. The United Kingdom and Canada supported this project. Robert Oppenheimer was a nuclear physicist, and he developed the first Atomic bombs.

7. Invention of Refrigerator

According to livescience.com, though the concept of refrigeration is two centuries old, Einstein made it eco-friendly. Still journey of past events were definitely interesting read. So, I am not going into detail, but I recommend reading it, it is an interesting.

Albert Einstein Invention List - Environmentally Friendly Einstein-Szilard Refrigerator
Environmentally Friendly Einstein-Szilard Refrigerator

They named this model as “Einstein-Szilard Refrigerator”. Obviously, because he invented it in collaboration with his former student, Szilard.

His model did not have any moving parts and also not depend on electricity. He used butane, ammonia, and water to create the refrigerator.

People used this invention across the world, but the inventor is still not unknown to many peoples. Most notably, Swedish companies bought many of the patents of Einstein, which have a promising future.

These are the Albert Einstein Inventions list with dates. It helped upcoming scientists a lot to develop new technologies. I hope you like this information and also please do not forget to share this article on social media.

Conclusion of Albert Einstein Inventions List

Albert Einstein, a renowned physicist, made significant contributions to theoretical physics, leading to a new understanding of the physical world. His curiosity was sparked at a young age by a compass, which led him to question invisible forces like gravity.

Einstein’s work has inspired numerous scientific explorations, including “Beyond Einstein” program of NASA, which aims to explore the limits of his General Theory of Relativity.

Among his notable contributions are:

1. Electric Gyrocompass: Developed in 1902, this device used a spinning wheel to determine the direction of a magnetic field. Although it never entered commercial production, Einstein donated his patent rights to the University of Zurich.

2. Brownian motion: Einstein’s observations of the zig-zag movement of particles helped prove the existence of molecules and atoms, laying the foundation for many branches of science.

3. Scattering of Light: Einstein’s curiosity about the color of the sky led him to prove that it is blue due to the scattering of light from molecules. He even developed a formula to calculate light scattering.

4. Quantum Theory of Light: Introduced in 1905, this theory proposes that light consists of energy packets called photons, which exhibit both particle and wave properties.

5. Photoelectric Effect: Einstein discovered that when light rays hit a metal surface, it can emit electrons, a phenomenon known as the photoelectric effect. This principle is used in television transmission, where old-fashioned TVs use “cathode ray tubes” to shoot electron beams at a screen, creating different colors and images.

6. Theory of General Relativity: This theory, which includes the famous mass-energy equation E=mc^2, explains how time and motion are relative to the observer. It has set the fundamental base for future inventions and has been used in the development of technologies like the atomic bomb.

7. Invention of Refrigerator: Einstein, in collaboration with his former student Szilard, invented an eco-friendly refrigerator model named “Einstein-Szilard Refrigerator”. This model did not have any moving parts and did not depend on electricity. It used butane, ammonia, and water to create refrigeration.

Still today the amazing work of Einstein continues to influence scientific thought and exploration. If you are interested feel free to read similar article on Albert Einstein Inventions list. It is an optional read but its worth checking out.


Image Sources & Credits

Featured Image, Credit: SDASM Archives

Beyond Einstein Program, Credit: NASA

The Photoelectric Effect Overview, Credit: Zappys Technology Solutions

​Photoelectric effect, Credit: Wolfmankurd

Photoelectric Effect Schematic Diagram, Credit: Dirk Hünniger

Nagasaki Bomb Explosion, Inspired by Original Source: Charles Levy

Uranium 235 electromagnetic separation plant in Manhattan Project, Inspired by Original Source: Leslie R. Groves

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