Hello everyone, today I am sharing the Dharamveer Sambhaji Maharaj History. He was the second great Maratha Emperor who dominated most of the southern region during his reign.
Brief Information of Sambhaji Raje Bhosale
|Identity||Second Great Chhatrapati of Maratha Empire|
|Reign||July 20, 1680, to 11th March 1689|
|Birthdate||May 14, 1657, at Purandar fort, Pune|
|Coronation||July 20, 1680, at Panhala fort|
|Parents||Mother: Saibai, Father: Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosale|
|Wife||Yesubai OR Jivubai Shirke (Name before marriage)|
|Childrens||Elder Daughter: Bhavanibai, Son: Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj|
|Date of Death||March 11, 1689, at Tulapur|
Chhatrapati Sambhaji Raje became a Maratha king after the sudden death of his father. His father was the great king Shivaji Maharaj who was the founder of Maratha Empire.
He was also called Sambhaji Raje Bhosale, and Shambhu Raje, are some of his popular Marathi names.
Indian people glorified him with the title “Dharamveer” because of his sacrifice for Hinduism.
We considered him the most powerful Maratha king after the reign of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.
Sambhaji Maharaj Jayanti
Just like any other legendary ruler, he gained honor and gratitude from people, even after his death. Marathi public designated Sambhaji Maharaj Punyatithi day to honor his bravery and achievements.
We also celebrate Sambhaji Maharaj Jayanti every year on the 14th day of May. This occasion aims at remembering and celebrating the epitome of bravery and determination of him.
He ruled the Maratha kingdom with dignity and great bravery. He fought and defended his people with the last of his energy.
Sambhaji remains one of the greatest kings to ever rule the Shivaji Kingdom. His people saw him as a protector. This day, his Jayanti marks the day that this brave legend was born.
People still uphold the culture of celebrating this legend even to date because his achievements and bravery still live within his people.
Sambhaji Maharaj Birth
14th May marks the day of his birth. This legend was first introduced into this world back in 1657. He was the son of the great Chhatrapati Shivaji and Saibai, his first wife and the eldest in his family.
Sambhaji grew up as a responsible young man and hence gained a lot of bravery and confidence in his work. He later inherited his father’s kingship and became the second king of the Maratha Kingdom.
When he was 2 years old, his mother passed away and Jijaibai took over on raising him. Jijabai made sure that Sambhaji grew up in the right way, and with good values. She taught all principles and duties as a prince and future king.
At two and a half years, his mother Saibai died. The reason behind the death of his mother was not so clear because of a lack of evidence.
At that time, Jijabai (Grandmother of Ch. Sambhaji) was there and took responsibility. Obviously, she had the capability to develop a second Chhatrapati. Like Sambhaji Raje, who was close to his grandmother, he was also close to his grandfather, Shahaji Maharaj.
For his overall personality development and teaching subjects, she appointed Pandits (teachers). They used to teach him various subjects, including the Sanskrit language.
She gives priceless value during the childhood of Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj.
Sambhaji Maharaj Raj Mudra
Raj Mudra is a genuine badge or the King’s Seal that Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj used in his notes and legal documents. We have numerous letters with Raj Mudra inscribed on them.
Shivaji Maharaj received the Raj Mudra from his father, Shahaji Raje Bhosale. Shahaji Maharaj gave it to Shivray when he came to Pune after sending Jijabai and Shivray to deal with the Pune Jagir. The most recent letter discovered with this ‘frankness stamp’ dates from 1639.
Up to date, none of the Indian records has presented any information regarding Sambhaji Maharaj Raj Mudra in evidence form. But we can assume he used the same Raj Mudra as Shivray during his reign.
Image of Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj
There is a lot of bad content that gets viral because our human mind wants to read such content and easily attracts towards negative things.
I just want to say a line about his character. Sambhaji Raje had no second lady in his life. At his time, it was really common to marry a second time.
Because he was from the royal family, Chhatrapati Shivray actually asked him for a second marriage. Then Shivray urged him, but he could not convince Sambhaji Maharaj at all.
So, you can imagine how pure his character was.
According to some sources, Chhatrapati Shivray also punished Sambhaji Raje and kept him under house arrest. Though it’s true, at the time of the death of Shivray, Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj was at Panhala fort under arrest.
But it’s they had clashed in between is a false claim. I don’t know why people spread false information with no factual proof. Apart from that, we can see many stories that are in vogue publicly that are totally misleading his personality.
I request my readers not to encourage articles that malign and mislead our king. During his reign, he became the target of Brahmanical society because of his strict administration. Apart from it, the society worked very hard to worsen the character of Chhatrapati Sambhaji.
Therefore, Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj’s history has always been controversial.
Lessons By Jijamata
Jijabai taught him how to manage in court, and how to give justice to people. Sambhaji had learned leadership skills, military skills, and war tactics under the teaching and supervision of his master.
After his learning period, Sambhaji Raje had an extraordinary level of intelligence and knowledge. Other than that, he also mastered Sanskrit. So courtiers entitled him with the title of “Maha Pandit”. Soon, he was famous for giving justice to people in Maratha durbar.
His fortune politically targeted him at a young age. Because he unwillingly had to accept Manasabdari of Mughal. Sambhaji Raje was Bara-Hazari Mansabdar. He was only 9 years old when he became Mansabdar. You can imagine how much his maturity level was at such a young age.
Sambhaji Maharaj Height & Weight
Historians and authors assumed his height referring to different sources and books. When we came to his weight, it may be approximately 110 kilograms and possibly around 6’2” tall.
Regarding the height and weight of this legend, none of the historical records have given any obvious information. However, we have two theories that can aid in determining his height and weight. These two theories are:
- Considering parents’ traits for height
- BMI theory for weight
Sambhaji Maharaj’s history tells us he earned a superb physique.
Sambhaji Maharaj Height
We don’t know the exact height of Chhatrapati Sambhaji. Though historians try to find out the approximate height based on pieces of evidence like inscriptions, paintings, coins, clothes, arm suites, etc.
Some genuine books written at his time indirectly describe his overall personality. It shows that he was taller than his father, Shivaji Raje Bhosale.
According to historical assumptions, he might be about 6’2” tall. Still, it’s just an assumption and his actual height and weight can vary.
Scientific Theory of Genes
In order to understand the concept of all qualities and physical appearance, I want to explain the concept of genes and traits quickly.
Let’s take an example of a son who is taller than his parents. Though his parents are shorter, his grandparents are tall.
If we look scientifically, genes and traits can dominate and suppress from one generation to another. As some people might often ask questions like, if parents are shorter, then how could their son be tall.
The answer is because their grandparents might be taller, which genes are present in parents but in suppressed form. On the other hand, if in a son, that gene has been dominated again. That is the reason their son is taller than their parents.
Considering Parents Traits
This theory hasn’t yet been approved as an accurate method to determine someone’s height. However, we have significant clues that this method actually gives an approximate height.
This theory suggests that a son is supposed to have 6.5 or 2.5 cm of height more than the father. I know it sounds funny, but theories have their own way of proving points and facts.
According to his linage and their trait inheritance, Sambhaj should have 3 or 4 cm taller than his father. Shivaji Maharaj, Sambhaj’s father, had a height of 5’6.
So, considering their royal inheritance, Sambhaj’s height can be approximated to have been 5’9. Which translates to him being 3 cm taller than his father.
Sambhaji Maharaj Weight
Here is how we actually calculated his weight with BMI theory.
The use of the BMI ratio can remain a good method to determine the height using their weight. According to history, Maharaj’s were strong and well-built. So, if this is true, then Sambhaj’s weight could have been more than 100 kg.
This theory suggests that B. M. I. =Weight/ [height (in m)] ^2
So, working on the above formula [height]^2 is equal to Weight/B. M. I.
According to present statistics, all bodybuilders and masculine men have an average B. M. I. of 30. With this data, we can easily calculate his approximate height using the given formula.
This gives us an approximate height of 1.82 m, which equals 6’1. Note that the above information is only estimates and not exact height and weight for Sambhaji Maharaj.
Physique of Sambhaji Maharaj
Of course, in his time there were no gyms and all that stuff. So, he used to do exercises like Pushups (Danda), Squats (Baithaka), Running (Dand), Sun Salutation (Surya Namaskar) etc.
For flexibility, he always preferred Sun Salutation (Surya Namaskara) instead of just stretching the body.
At his time, Kushti/Malla Yudha (Desi Wrestling) was the popular sport. As we don’t have any source to prove it, but, he might also be good at these sports.
After all, his fortitude, efforts for Swarajya and political tactics played a crucial role along with his actual strength.
Books written by Sambhaji Maharaj
Sambhaji Maharaj was proficient in 14 different languages at 14 years of his age. He was able to speak Marathi, English, Urdu, Portuguese, Sanskrit, Mughal languages, all South Indian languages, all Deccan languages, etc. He wrote three books at this age – Buddha Bhushan, Nakhsheekhant or Nayikabhed, and Sat Shasak (Seven Rulers).
Treaty of Purandar: Connection with Sambhaji Maharaj History
As this topic is about Shivaji Maharaj, but the history of Sambhaji Maharaj was also associated with it.
Jai Singh took one more promise from Shivaji Maharaj, he told Shivaji Raje to go to Mughal court along with Sambhaji Raje.
Sambhaji Raje also had to serve the Mughal durbar. Then, Shivaji Maharaj went to Delhi as promised to Mirza Jayasigh in the treaty.
As a result, Sambhaji Raje got into politics at an early age. But because of that he became able to understand the political strategies.
Shivaji Maharaj was farsighted and well known about the importance of political union between two states. At that time, all have to marry at a very young age period of about 7 to 14 years’.
Pilgir Rao Shirke was just entered as Military General in the court of Shivaji Maharaj and Jivubai was his daughter. Sambhaji Raje married to Jivubai, later she changed her name to “Yesubai” according to Maratha culture. The marriage of Shambhu Raje was also a political decision taken by Shivaji Maharaj.
Sambhaji Maharaj History at Raigad and Panhala fort
After the death of Shivaji, Shambhu Raje was at Panhala fort under eye surveillance of fort commander.
Some influential ministers in the court of Shivaji Maharaj planned the conspiracy against Sambhaji Raje.
They tried to prevent Sambhaji to become the next Chhatrapati of Maratha Empire. On getting the information about conspiracy. Then, Sambhaji Maharaj immediately took Panhala fort under his influence.
In that conflict, he killed the fort commander and captured the Panhala fort.
Capture of Traitors
Hambirrao Mohite was army Chief of Shivaji Maharaj and elder brother of Soyarabai. After capturing Panhala fort, Sambhaji Raje needed to capture the fort of Raigad.
As per plan, he took Raigad under his influence with the help of Hambirrao Mohite. Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj History also let you know the conspirators behind the Shivaji Maharaj death.
Many of the people blamed Soyarabai for the conspiracy, but it’s not true. After that, Sambhu Raje imprisoned Annaji Datto, Peshwa Moropant Pingale and one brother-in-law from Shirke family.
For justice, he never discriminated between people and his own relatives.
Three months after the death of Shivaji Raje, the coronation ceremony of Sambhaji Raje was held on Panhalagad. Crown Prince Sambhaji Raje was now a Chhatrapati.
When he became a king, many conflicts happened between Maratha and Mughal. This post on Sambhaji Maharaj history gives necessary information about their conflict.
Sambhaji Maharaj Rajabhishek
This day marks the anniversary of Sambhaji Maharaj Coronation. These celebrations take place every year on the 16th of January. On this day, people commemorate the coronation of the great Sambhaj Maharaj.
On this day, the Maratha people rejoice and send messages of wishes and give offerings to his statue. However, COVID-19 new protocols have interfered with the undertakings of the event.
The occasion ended up being an achievement in Maratha history as it likewise denoted the start of Hindavi Swarajya in India.
On this day, Sambhaji received the title of ‘Shakakarta’ which signifies ‘author of a period’ in English and ‘Chhatrapati’ (central sovereign).
He likewise took the title of Haindava Dharmodhhaarak (defender of the Hindu confidence) during his crowning ordinance service.
This remains to be a special day, the day that Shivaji received the title of ‘Shakakarta’ which signifies ‘author of a period’ in English and ‘Chhatrapati’ (central sovereign).
Mysore Campaign by Sambhaji Maharaj
In 1681 CE, Sambhaji Raje began the Southern Mysore campaign against Wadiyar Dynasty. Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar-II was the king of Wadiyar Dynasty at that time.
He was one of the very aggressive kings of that time. He had not surrendered to Chhatrapati Sambhaji and attacked instead. In return, Sambaji Raje, with his giant army, fought like storming warriors and won the battle.
Shambhu Raje released Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar on the promise to contribute for Swarajya in the future campaigns. In between 1682 and 1686, Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar contributed during battles.
But, after some time, he refused and made union with Mughals. As a result, he finally defeated him and captured Mysore in 1686.
Attack on Burhanpur
Chhatrapati Shambhu Raje first attacked the capital of Khandesh Subha (province) of Aurangzeb, named Burhanpur in 1680 CE. In the Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj History, this attack helps a lot in future campaigns.
The intent behind this attack was to reduce poverty and food shortages in the Maratha Empire. The Marathas received huge Mughal treasures in this attack.
In the history of Sambhaji Maharaj, this attack of Burhanpur was famous as Sambhaji Raje defeated Mughal forces with 20,000 troops.
The Marathas received huge Mughal treasures in this attack. Akabar-II was the fourth son of Aurangzeb, who rebelled against the Mughal Empire and went to Aurangabad for further planning.
Aurangzeb also went there and defeated his son and his troop. Hence, Akabar-II had to go out from there. After the defeat of Akabar-II, he had to take shelter of Sambhaji Raje at Raigad.
Fort of Janjira
Murud Janjira became an unconquered fort of India. It was situated in the Indian Ocean. The Navy chief of Sultan Nizam Shah, Rajaram Rao Patil built the fort of Murud Janjira. Its construction was completed in the 16th century. The fort has a total area of around 22 acres.
The story behind how Siddhis captured the Janjira Fort
Fort of Janjira has its own water resources inside with enough land. Therefore, people inside the fort can survive for as long as they want without going outside the fort.
After Rajaram Rao Patil constructed the Janjira fort. He declared himself an independent king. Sultan Nizam Shah appointed Piram Khan as the new Navy chief.
Nizam sent him with enough military and ammunition. But Piram Khan knew we could directly attack and win the fort. That is the reason he went inside the fort in disguise of a trader.
He impressed Rajaram Rao Patil, so he allowed him to stay and invited him to become a part of the celebration.
At that incident night, every guard was drunk. So, taking advantage of the situation, Piram Khan opened the gate of a fort. Hence, his military got inside easily and victory became a piece of cake.
Interesting Facts of Janjira Fort
- The Murud Janjira is the strongest fort in the Indian Ocean.
- The fort suffered several attacks, but still most parts of the fort are still in good condition.
- Fort designed it in such a way that, we cannot see the main entrance till you reach its 40 feet near the entrance wall.
- Murud Janjira has featured naturally with two drinkable water resources. It is considered a wonder of nature because the salty ocean surrounded the fort.
- On the fort, locals are believed to have once there were 572 cannons to defend the fort.
- A special attraction in the fort are three big cannons named Kalak Bangadi, Chavri, Landa Kasam. One cannon, named Kalak Bangadi weighs 22 tons and is the third gigantic cannon in India.
- The fort once was popular for its excellent defense system. It also has secret ways for in-out.
Battle of Janjira
Before Sambhaji Raje, Shivaji Maharaj had already limited the influence of Siddhi to the island of Janjira. Shambhu Raje again attacked on Siddhis of Janjira in 1682.
Marathas did heavy damage to defense of Janjira, and the campaign lasted for almost 30 days. Marathas not broken the defense mechanism of the castle completely.
Then, the Maratha army attacked with the help of building a causeway from shore to island.
Unfortunately, before the attack of Marathas, Siddhis made ally with Mughals.
As a result, when Sambhaji Maharaj attacked Siddhis of Janjira, the Mughal army attacked fort of Raigad to distract him from Siddhis.
As he was very close to winning the battle. But he urgently needed to go back to Raigad Fort for a counter-attack.
After that, remaining Maratha troops failed to succeed in that mission. Two battles as this battle was the only campaign in the History of Sambhaji Maharaj in which he wasn’t completely succeeded.
There were only two battles that he ever failed during his lifetime. That battles are:
- Battle of janjira
- War at Sangameshwar
Because he wasn’t win the battle, but was not totally lost. On the other hand, he made great damage to Siddhis. During the Janjira campaign, Sambhaji Maharaj built the Padmadurg fort northeast of the Janjira fort.
Attack on Portuguese Forts and Colonies
After an unsuccessful attack on Siddhi, Sambhaji Raje sent his military commander to capture Anjediva fort of the Portuguese.
Maratha thought to convert that fort into a naval base to build new warships and garrisons. But Chief Commander General failed because of some reasons. So, he returns from Anjediva fort back to Raigad.
Sambhaji Maharaj in Portuguese campaign
Then, Sambhaji Raje went there and continued that mission. He captured all colonies and forts of the Portuguese.
He made the situation for the Portuguese so horrible that they had to run away from Anjediva fort to Cathedral.
In the Cathedral, they hide themselves in the underground vault of the Church where they prayed for their liberation.
Portuguese were helping Mughal in trade and allowed them to pass through their region.
The major goal of Shambhu Raje in that mission was to break the union of Mughals and Portuguese.
His History is crucial to understand the relationships between Mughals and Portuguese.
Capture of Shambhu Raje: Worst Event in Maratha History
In 1689, Sambhaji Maharaj planned to completely throw out Mughal from Hindustan. Therefore, he arranged a meeting at Sangmeshwar.
There, he called all his commanders. Brother-in-law of Sambhaji Maharaj, named Ganoji Shirke, made union with Mughals.
Ganoji was so greedy and wanted Watandari (Maratha Land) from his Kingdom. But, Sambhaji Raje straightly rejected his demands to give Watandari.
Ganoji Shirke has exposed all hidden routes of Sangameshwar to Mughal commander Mukkarabkhan.
At that time, Sambhaji Raje was with his Brahmin friend and advisor “Kavi Kalash” and with some trustworthy people because that meeting was so confidential.
When he was about to leave the village, suddenly, all Mughal troops surrounded him and along with other commanders. After that, his last battle began.
Sambhaji Maharaj was one of the Courageous Freedom Fighters in the History of India.
Last Battle of Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj
All Maratha Chieftains fought with a huge Mughal army. Literally they spill bloodshed till their last breath.
Because of the number difference in troops, Shambhu Raje and his close friend Kavi Kalash were captured on 1st February 1689.
At that time, Sangameshwar was under the Maratha Empire, so there were Maratha posts (checkouts to charge tax from traders).
Ganoji Shirke handled that checkpoint saying, both are diamond smugglers arrested by him. After crossing all check posts, Zulfikar Khan was ready with 20,000 Mughal troops.
Some historical theories believe that Zulfikar Khan directly took him to Tulapur. There, Mughal tortured him and finally executed him.
Other theories show that torture has happened in several places. Because the Mughals used to change places because of security.
Because during the reign of Sambhaji Maharaj, Marathas had enough resources and an army. So they could attack to rescue their king.
Zulfikar Khan, along with troops, took Chhatrapati Sambhaji Bhosale and Kavi Kalash far away to Bahadurgad via Karad- Baramati route.
Sambhaji Maharaj history was inspiring as he teaches us we should love our religion and should not change like clothes.
According to Sambhaji Raje, religion means faith and by changing it we became unfaithful with our previous religion.
Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj at Tulapur
Aurangzeb behaved very much inhumanely with both of them. Aurangzeb humiliated Sambhaji Raje and Kavi Kalash by binding them to Camels, with head down position.
Then, Mughal troops threw stones, mud, etc. to feel ashamed, both tolerated all with chanting “Jagadamb, Jagadamb” (name of their family god).
Conditions of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb actually wanted to mortify both of them. After that, Sambhaji Raje took to the court of Aurangzeb. There he kept 3 conditions in front of Sambhaji Maharaj to be live:
- Hand over all Maratha forts and secrete treasures of Maratha Empire
- Disclose names of Mughal traitors which was officers in Mughal court
- Accept Islam religion
Sambhaji Raje rejected all of those conditions. Then, Aurangzeb offered many attractive greedy things to break the pride of Sambhaji Raje but, he refused all times.
As, Sambhaji Maharaj refusing all conditions. Finally, Aurangzeb started torturing him to break his patience and forced to accept the Islam religion.
According to records, his torture was so frightful and was described as below:
Mughals used to pluck his nails with tongs, cutting out his fingers, cut off the tongue, peeled out his skin, plucking out his eyes with hot red rods, cutting his both hands one by one.
Finally, tearing down back to front by weapon and beheaded.
After every torture, Aurangzeb asked him for accepting Islam, but he refused every time.
Aurangzeb used to go into the prison in hope he would agree once. But, that time never came and torture carried on for several days.
At the end, Mughals threw their pieces of the body at the confluence of Bhima River, Tulapur.
Some clever people of society tried Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj History to counterfeit. Above all, we recognized those authors as renowned writers of Maharashtra.
In Sambhaji Maharaj history, it was mentioned that some intellectual Vadhu peoples of the nearby village collected body parts. They sewed them and gave final rites to the body of Sambhaji Maharaj.
Final Ritual by Shivale community
These peoples later called “Shivale” which means sewing in the Marathi language. In Sambhaji Maharaj History, there are so many misconceptions in society.
Due to lack of reading real authorized history and untruth viral due to some wrong people.
Sambhaji Raje showed unconditional love for the Hindu religion. So, he called the Dharamveer, meaning legend of the Hindu religion, as he was not ready to convert into another religion till his last breath.
Sambhaji Maharaj Punyatithi
During his reign, Sambhaji Maharaj demonstrated his strength in many fields like humanism, legislative issues, financial aspects, religion.
Indeed, even subsequent to being trapped in the grasp of the adversary, they didn’t do homage to the foe. His bravery and ruling skills remain unmatched up to date.
Punyatithi marks the commemoration of such a valiant lord. Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj died on the new moon of Falgun.
This day marks his passing away. As History puts it out, he passed on the new moon of Falgun. The people of Maratha kingdom celebrates this day and calls it the day of sacrifice just like he did. He died fighting for his people.
Sambhaji Maharaj Samadhi
The Sambhaji Samadhi is arranged in the vicinity of the Sangameshwar Temple in the town of Tulapur. The Samadhi comprises a stupendous sculpture of Maratha King Sambhaji Maharaj–child of the incomparable Maratha champion, Shivaji Maharaj.
Sambhaji acquired the title of Dharam Veer – which means the ‘Defender of Religion’. Mughal ruler Aurangzeb , single-handedly built this Samadhi in Talapur just after Sambhaji passed on.
His Sacrifice played a vital role in converting the Maratha Kingdom into Empire.
Sambhaji Maharaj history is important in Maratha History as, after his sacrifice, Maratha troops took a stand against the Mughals.
Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj was one of the great freedom fighters of India.
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Who captured Sambhaji Maharaj?
Firstly, Ganoji Shirke exposed information to the commander of Mughal army, Mukkarabkhan. Then, he sent Zulfikar Khan to Sangameshwar where he captured Sambhaji Raje with his friend Kavi Kalash on 1st February 1689.
How did Sambhaji Maharaj died?
Chhatrapati Sambhaji unfortunately captured by Mughals on orders of Aurangzeb who was his enemy. His death was terrible than our thinking and it was most inhuman thing done by Aurangzeb.
How many wife of Sambhaji Maharaj?
Sambhaji Raje married to Jivubai Shirke. After marriage, according to Maratha Royal tradition her name changed as “Yesubai.” She was only wife of Chhatrapati Sambhaji.
Did Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj really learnt 14 languages?
People often refuses to accept this truth and asks how it is possible to learn 14 different languages? But, it is actually possible because of some Indian languages actually have similar phrasing.
Like, if you learn the Sanskrit very well, then you can learn Marathi and Hindi in lesser time. You can take it as my personal opinion, but I think it is well applicable.
I am not saying all languages will be similar but in some languages it definitely have advantage. It cut downs the learning curve and helps to learn things faster.
Nowadays, children becoming lazy and not dedicated, and less tolerable to learn to that extent. Because to learn 14 languages you have to be very dedicated. One should have good pronunciation and sharp enough to grasp grammar of languages.
Featured Image Credits: Apricus
Image Credits: Abhijeet Safai, Source: Wikimedia
Image Credits: Wikimedia, Source: British gallery online
Image Credits: Upadhye Guruji, Source: Wikimedia