Introduction to Bajirao Peshwa 1st History:
After 2015 blockbuster film “Bajirao-Mastani,” Bajirao Peshwa 1st History is now popular. Bajirao-Mastani History was real love story of Peshwa Bajirao. But, is the story in the film is exact same as real one? Off course not. Because, film producers and directors used film freedom to make you watch, right?
So, today we are talking about real History of Bajirao Peshwa,
After the death of Shivaji Maharaj and 9 years of short reign of Sambhaji Maharaj, there was no stable authority who can govern strategically. Chhatrapati Rajaram Maharaj had died earlier after he came to throne.
Wife of Maharaj Rajaram named Maharani Tarabai controlled and keep the Maratha kingdom alive from fort of Ajinkya Tara. Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath who became a Peshwa after certain period. He was considered as one of the successful peshwas of time.
After the uncertain death of Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, his son Bajirao Ballal became peshwa after proving himself infront of courtiers. He became peshwa in the durbar of Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj-I at very young age of 20 years.
Childhood of Bajirao Peshwa 1st:
Peshwa Bajirao Ballal was popularly called as Bajirao Peshwa in Pune. Bajirao Peshwa was born in Chhitpavan Brahmin Bhat family on August 18, 1700.
Bajirao used to went for campaigns with father at the very early age of 12 years. He learned many skills from his fathers, and other Maratha Generals.
He became very disciplined and actively share his thoughts in every campaign. He learned skills that were required for tactical warfare.
Once, commander-in-chief of Shahu Maharaj named Dabhaji Thorat arrested Balaji Vishwanath. Dabhaji Thorat betrayed Balaji Vishwanath in order to insult and bow down in 1716. Bajirao also lived in jail with his father until the release of father. This event clearly expresses, how much he loved his family.
Bajirao Peshwa 1st History:
Appointment of Bajirao Peshwa:
Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath had sudden fall in his health. He took leave for recovery and came in Saswad village, but, he died in 1920. Due to the sudden death of faithful Balaji Vishwanath, there was a big question in front of Shahu Maharaj, that who would be liable for this high profile post.
There were so many Knights, Senior and experienced personalities than Bajirao Ballal who was only 20 years old. But, Shahu Maharaj appointed Bajirao Ballal as next Peshwa on the basis of a contest.
Because of the decision of Shahu Maharaj, all ministers in his court felt jealous about Bajirao. Bajirao-I didn’t take a long time to prove that Shahu Maharaj had taken right decision by choosing him.
The personality of Bajirao Peshwa:
Bajirao had a very charming personality, he was about 6 feet tall, with very strong physique, his brownish- yellow color adds-on in his body.
Bajirao Peshwa Nickname:
His nickname was Rao. He was very ambitious and committed about his strategies.
Bajirao was called the Ranamard meaning man of battle or warfare.
Bajirao Peshwa had built finest cavalry in India. No one created such responsible, well trained, and disciplined cavalry in India.
Peshwa Bajirao Sword:
Bajirao used to fight with 40 kg sword, armor, and belt. He was very much excellent in driving sword, his sword got invisible at the time of battle, I meant to express his speed here.
In the war, Bajirao was throwing the spear so strongly that the enemy would be injured with their horse.
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Peshwa Bajirao Horses:
Bajirao loved to kept different kind of horses of various pedigreed in his personal horse barn. Malhari and Badal were one of those favorite horses.
Peshwa Balaji Bajirao:
Dream of Peshwa Bajirao:
Bajirao was also called as Thorale Bajirao, he had the dream that Hindustan should have Hindu Emporer. He was ready to help any Hindu Kingdom at any time.
He had the dream to swash the Maratha flag on the Red Fort, Delhi.
Religion Policy in the Maratha Kingdom:
Though, he didn’t discriminate two religions in Empire that he won, as we had an example of Mastani who was Muslim but he accepted her as his wife.
Bajirao had very much affection for Mastani, but it didn’t mean that his first wife got ignored.
A Mother who made Bajirao Peshwa- Radhabai:
From his early life, Radhbai taught him fundamental study and how to became real nationalist.
Radhabai frequently told stories about Maharana Pratap, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj and their sacrifices for our nation to encourage nationalist thoughts in his mind. Bajirao Mastani History was assumed as legendary love story in India.
Bajirao-Mastani History in reality:
It’s true that Mastani was not accepted by Bajirao’s family, but in the film, it showed that Radhabai (Bajirao’s mother) kept harassing her, I think this part was totally wrong and created to show someone like villain character to enhance the love story.
Radhabai had qualities like Abstinence, perseverance, and generosity. She had only taught his sons and daughters not to discriminate between any two religions. So, how she could harassed Mastani.
Chimmaji Appa imprisoned Mastani, Radhabai only women who released Mastani.
Administration of Maratha Empire:
Maratha Empire had capital at Satara, according to the opinion of Bajirao the Shahu Maharaj shifted capital to Pune. Though, Bajirao had control over the whole army, he never took advantage of it. Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj had very much trust in Bajirao.
He assumes himself as only like the soldier who fought for his motherland. He made several campaigns to join Baroda, Dhar, Indore, Gwalior, and Knights of these kingdoms remained faithful with Maratha Empire till last.
Bajirao-Mastani History- Achievements of the Peshwa Bajirao:
Fear of Peshwa in Enemy:
Peshwa Bajirao created an atmosphere of horror in the enemy party so that the pregnant ladies fell down their womb after hearing, “Peshwa Bajirao is coming!” I had read that in some book and it may be wrong but any historical story had some truth behind, so it was true that Peshwa Bajirao had created such tremendous fear an enemy.
He had not kept his sight only limited to Maharashtra. He expanded Maratha kingdom further in the south from Goa, Mysore to Katak in the north, now in Pakistan. He invented many war tactics to enhance the attack. Those techniques had also used world war-II. Now those techniques and strategies now taught in defense studies.
The campaign against Nizam-Ul-Muluk (Asaf Jah-I):
To Challenge new Peshwa Bajirao, Mughal Emporer made Nizam as Vazir in 1722. Nizam captured regions in Deccan and refused the Maratha to collect taxes from Deccan. Mughal Emporer sent him from Deccan to Aavadh. Nizam resigned from the post of Vazir and went to Deccan again. Nizam with the forces led by Bajirao won the battle of Sakharkheda against Mughal. But, after some time Nizam rebelled against both Maratha and Mughal.
So, in order to teach a lesson to Nizam, Bajirao fought the battle of Palkhed. In that battle, Bajirao defeated Nizam badly and forced to make a peace. Nizam signed a treaty of Mungi to accept the rights of Shahu Maharaj to collect the taxes.
The campaign in Malwa:
Bajirao started expedition in Malwa region in 1723 to collect the tax. He sent Malharrao Holkar, Ranoji Shinde, Tukoji Rao Pawar, Udaji Rao Pawar, Jivaji Rao Pawar for the collection of taxes. Peshwa Bajirao sent huge troops led by his brother Chimajirao Appa with generals Holkar, Shinde, Pawar.
Chimajirao fought the battle of Amjhera with Mughals. Chimajirao Appa had defeated Mughals in that campaign on 29 November 1728.
Battle in Bundelkhand:
Maharaja of Bundelkhand Chhatrasaal was powerful and valiant Hindu King. But, when he becomes aged Mughals attacked Bundelkhand with Bangash Shah as their commander. Bangash Shah encircled the fort of Bundelkhand and break the food supply of fort.
Maharaja Chhatrasaal writes a letter to Bajirao asking for help. At that time, Bajirao was busy in the Malwa campaign. But as soon as he realized that one Hindu nation was in danger, Bajirao immediately planned a campaign in Bundelkhand. Bajirao with war techniques, he won the battle in Bundelkhand. Bajirao overthrew out Bangash Shah from Bundelkhand.
Maharaja Chhatrasal was happy and gave jagir and treasure. Maharaja also gave his daughter Mastani to Bajirao. Mastani became the second wife of Bajirao. Before the death of Maharaja Chhatrasaal in December 1731, he assigned many of his territories to Marathas.
The campaign in Gujarat:
Bajirao turned his eyes towards the fertile region of Gujarat. He sent the younger brother Chimajirao Apapa along with a large parade. At that time, the governor of Gujarat was Sarabuland Khan who was replaced by Abhay Singh. Both of them accepted the right to collect tax in the Marathas.
Trimbak Rao Dabhade was the commander of Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj because his ancestors had tried so many times to earn their taxes from Gujarat, so because of Jealousy, he rebelled against Peshwas. The Mughal Emperor sent Jai Singh II to defeat the Marathas, suggesting that he would conduct a pre-dialogue with the Marathas.
Mughal emperor became frustrated he was sent Mohammed Khan Bangash to Jai Singh’s place. Bangash unioned with Trimbak Rao and Sambhaji II.
On 1 April 1731, Peshwa Bajirao defeated the army in the battle of Dabhoi. Trimbak Rao was killed in that battle. Bajirao by signing treaty sets the limits of the territories of Sambhaji II and Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj. Nizam also met to Bajirao and decided not to interfere in Maratha territories.
Trimbak Rao’s son Yashwant Rao was also given the right to collect taxes on the condition of half the amount deposited in the treasury of the Maratha state.
The campaign in Konkan against Siddhi:
Siddhi of Janjira had placed in the important western coast of Maharashtra which was important for trading and business-like import, export.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj already limited Siddhi’s influence but after the death of Shivaji Maharaj Siddhi again started his expansion towards central Konkan. Due to Sudden death of the leader of Siddhi Rasul Yakut Khan, there started the war of Succession in Siddhi’s clan. One of his son Abdul Rahman unioned with Marathas. Bajirao sent an army with Sekhoji Angre to Konkan.
In 19th April 1936, Bajirao sent Chimajirao Appa to Konkan campaign. He successfully completed his campaign by killing about 1500 Siddhi troops. Maratha army able to capture many forts and regions of Siddhi.
After the death of Sambhaji Maharaj, Raigad was not part of the Maratha Kingdom. In 1733, Maratha army took back Raigad fort under leadership of Peshwa Bajirao.
Invasion of Delhi:
In November 1736, Baji Rao planned strategically, he asked Malharrao Holkar to Invasion on Delhi. Then the Mughi. al Emperor sent Sadat Khan to fight against the Marathi army.
Sadat Khan gathered all his power for incoming battle. In order to defeat the Maratha army, he gathered around a one and half-lakh army.
It shows that how fear of Marathas in the enemy But the plan was not to fight, so as per the plan Malhar Rao left the battleground. Seeing this, the Mughal army returned. Bajirao plays their curry tricks, they spend only 9 days in 3 days with 500 good horse riders and siege Delhi. This event is considered to be one of the fastest attacks in history. It was 3 days in the siege.
Bajirao did not have interest in Delhi, he wanted to introduce the only power of Maratha to the world. It is understandable that this was a small thing to win Delhi for Peshwa Bajirao.
Nizam again rebelled against Maratha Empire. Nizam made unioned with Mughals.
On 24th of December 1737, there was a big battle between unioned forces of Nizam and Mughals against Peshwa Bajirao. Peshwa Bajirao won that battle. That was the biggest victory of Peshwa Bajirao and Marathas and that was the biggest defeat in the history of Mughals.
But the plan was not to fight, so as per the plan Malhar Rao left the battleground. Seeing this, the Mughal army returned. Bajirao plays their real tricks, they covered the distance of 9 days completed in 3 days with 500 good horse riders and siege Delhi. This event is considered to be one of the fastest attacks in history. It was 3 days in the siege.
Bajirao- Mastani History- Baji Rao’s premature death:
According to historians, Peshwa Bajirao died due to excessive fever. His premature death was not only to the Maratha Empire but also the biggest shock to the whole of India. After his death, the foreigners got a chance to stay in India for the growth and stability. The British made the most of its use.
The Britishers kept motherland for 200 years in enslavement. Peshwa Bajirao was the most precious jewel in India. Peshwa Bajirao dedicated his life for Hindavi Swarajya. The dream of Shivaji Maharaj’s ceaseless Hindavi Swaraj was fulfilled by Bajirao in the true sense. Due to their unremitting efforts and extravagance, he flaunted the Maratha flag beyond Atak currently in Pakistan.
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